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Towards absolute scales for the radii and masses of open clusters
Aims. In this paper we derive tidal radii and masses of open clusters inthe nearest kiloparsecs around the Sun. Methods: For each cluster, themass is estimated from tidal radii determined from a fitting ofthree-parameter King profiles to the observed integrated densitydistribution. Different samples of members are investigated. Results:For 236 open clusters, all contained in the catalogue ASCC-2.5, weobtain core and tidal radii, as well as tidal masses. The distributionsof the core and tidal radii peak at about 1.5 pc and 7-10 pc,respectively. A typical relative error of the core radius lies between15% and 50%, whereas, for the majority of clusters, the tidal radius wasdetermined with a relative accuracy better than 20%. Most of theclusters have tidal masses between 50 and 1000 m_ȯ, and for abouthalf of the clusters, the masses were obtained with a relative errorbetter than 50%.Full Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/151

The population in the background of open clusters: tracer of the Norma-Cygnus arm
We present colour-magnitude diagrams of open clusters, located in therange 112° < l < 252°, manifesting stellar populations inthe background of clusters. Some of the populations are found to belocated beyond the Perseus arm and may be the part of the Norma-Cygnus(outer) arm. The outer arm seems to be continued from l ~ 120° to~235°. The background populations follow the downward warp of theGalactic plane around l ~ 240°.

On the current status of open-cluster parameters
We aim to characterize the current status of knowledge on the accuracyof open-cluster parameters such as the age, reddening and distance.These astrophysical quantities are often used to study the globalcharacteristics of the Milky Way down to the very local stellarphenomena. In general, the errors of these quantities are neglected orset to some kind of heuristic standard value. We attempt to give somerealistic estimates for the accuracy of available cluster parameters byusing the independently derived values published in the literature. Intotal, 6437 individual estimates for 395 open clusters were used in ourstatistical analysis. We discuss the error sources depending ontheoretical as well as observational methods and compare our resultswith those parameters listed in the widely used catalogue by Dias et al.In addition, we establish a list of 72 open clusters with the mostaccurate known parameters which should serve as a standard table in thefuture for testing isochrones and stellar models.

Kinematics of the Open Cluster System in the Galaxy
Absolute proper motions and radial velocities of 202 open clusters inthe solar neighborhood, which can be used as tracers of the Galacticdisk, are used to investigate the kinematics of the Galaxy in the solarvicinity, including the mean heliocentric velocity components(u1,u2,u3) of the open cluster system,the characteristic velocity dispersions(σ1,σ2,σ3), Oortconstants (A,B) and the large-scale radial motion parameters (C,D) ofthe Galaxy. The results derived from the observational data of propermotions and radial velocities of a subgroup of 117 thin disk young openclusters by means of a maximum likelihood algorithm are:(u1,u2,u3) =(-16.1+/-1.0,-7.9+/-1.4,-10.4+/-1.5) km s-1,(σ1,σ2,σ3) =(17.0+/-0.7,12.2+/-0.9,8.0+/-1.3) km s-1,(A,B) =(14.8+/-1.0,-13.0+/-2.7) km s-1 kpc-1, and (C,D) =(1.5+/-0.7,-1.2+/-1.5) km s-1 k pc-1. A discussionon the results and comparisons with what was obtained by other authorsis given.

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

Metallicity distribution on the galactic disk
Depending mainly on UBVCCD data, the metallicities of 91 open starclusters nearby the galactic disk have been estimated using Cameron's[A&A 147 (1985b) 39] method. The metallicity radial gradient alongthe galactic plane is found to be -0.09 dex/kpc; which is in a very goodagreement with Panagia and Tosi [A&A 96 (1981) 306] and Carraro etal. [MNRAS 296 (1998) 1045]. Vertically on the galactic disk, withinabout 800 pc, the metallicity gradient is found to be so trivial. Anaverage age-metallicity relation has been examined, which confirms theprevious suggestion that the metallicity of a cluster depending mainlyon its position on the galactic disk more than its age.

Distances to Cepheid open clusters via optical and K-band imaging
We investigate the reddening and main-sequence-fitted distances to 11young, Galactic open clusters that contain Cepheids. Each clustercontains or is associated with at least one Cepheid variable star.Reddening to the clusters is estimated using the U-B:B-V colours of theOB stars and the distance modulus to the cluster is estimated via B-V:Vand V-K:V colour-magnitude diagrams. Our main-sequence fitting assumesthat the solar-metallicity zero-age main sequence of Allen appliesuniversally to all the open clusters, although this point iscontroversial at present. In this way we proceed to calibrate theCepheid period-luminosity (PL) relation and find MV=-2.87× logP- 1.243 +/- 0.09, MK=-3.44 × logP- 2.21 +/-0.10 and absolute distance moduli to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) of18.54 +/- 0.10 from the V-band and 18.48 +/- 0.10 from the K-band givingan overall distance modulus to the LMC of μ0= 18.51 +/-0.10. This is in good agreement with the previous Cepheid PL-K result ofLaney & Stobie at μ0= 18.51 +/- 0.09 and with theHipparcos parallax-calibrated Cepheid PL-K estimate of Feast &Catchpole at μ0= 18.66 +/- 0.10 when no account is takenof the LMC metallicity.We also find that the two-colour U-B:B-V diagrams of two importantclusters are not well fitted by the standard main-sequence line. In onecase, NGC 7790, we find that the F stars show a UV excess and in thesecond case, NGC 6664, they are too red in U-B. Previous spectroscopicestimates of the metallicity of the Cepheids in these clusters appear tosuggest that the effects are not due to metallicity variations. Otherpossible explanations for these anomalies are positional variations inthe dust reddening law and contamination by foreground or backgroundstars.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

Morphological analysis of open clusters' propertiesII. Relationships projected onto the galactic plane
A morphological analysis study of open clusters' properties has beenachieved for a sample of 160 UBVCCD open star clusters of approximately128,000 stars near the galactic plane. The data was obtained and reducedfrom using the same reduction procedures, which makes this catalogue thelargest homogeneous source of open clusters' parameters.

The Distance Scale for Classical Cepheid Variables
New radii, derived from a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink (BW)method that is tied to published KHG narrowband spectrophotometry, arepresented for 13 bright Cepheids. The data yield a best-fittingperiod-radius relation given bylog=1.071(+/-0.025)+0.747(+/-0.028)logP0. In combination with other high-quality radiusestimates recently published by Laney & Stobie, the new data yield aperiod-radius relation described bylog=1.064(+/-0.0006)+0.750(+/-0.006)logP0, which simplifies to ~P3/4.The relationship is used to test the scale of Cepheid luminositiesinferred from cluster zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) fitting, for whichwe present an updated list of calibrating Cepheids located in stellargroups. The cluster ZAMS-fitting distance scale tied to a Pleiadesdistance modulus of 5.56 is found to agree closely with the distancescale defined by Hipparcos parallaxes of cluster Cepheids and alsoyields Cepheid luminosities that are a good match to those inferred fromthe period-radius relation. The mean difference between absolute visualmagnitudes based on cluster ZAMS fitting,C, and those inferred for 23 clusterCepheids from radius and effective temperature estimates,BW, in the sense of C-BW is+0.019+/-0.029 s.e. There is no evidence to indicate the need for amajor revision to the Cepheid cluster distance scale. The absolutemagnitude differences are examined using available [Fe/H] data for thecluster Cepheid sample to test the metallicity dependence of theperiod-luminosity relation. Large scatter and a small range ofmetallicities hinder a reliable estimate of the exact relationship,although the data are fairly consistent with predictions from stellarevolutionary models. The derived dependence isΔMV(C-BW)=+0.06(+/-0.03)-0.43(+/-0.54)[ Fe/H].

Proper motions of open clusters based on the TYCHO2 Catalogue. II. Clusters farther than 1 kpc
We determined the mean absolute proper motion of 94 open clusterssituated farther than 1 kpc from the Sun. The results are derived fromthe stellar proper motion data given in the Tycho2 Catalogue. The meanproper motion of the clusters and membership probability of individualstars were obtained from the proper motion data by applying thestatistical method proposed by Sanders (\cite{Sanders1971}). Themeasurements made use of a large number of stars, usually several tens,for each cluster. The total number of stars investigated in the fieldsof the clusters is 4864 of which 2021 were considered members. For 55clusters, this is the first determination of the proper motion. Based onobservations of the ESA Hipparcos satellite. Tables 1 to 95 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/388/168

Integrated photometric characteristics of galactic open star clusters
Integrated UBVRI photometric parameters of 140 galactic open clustershave been computed. Integrated I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0colours as well as integrated parameters for 71 star clusters have beenobtained for the first time. These, in combination with published data,altogether 352 objects, are used to study the integrated photometriccharacteristics of the galactic open clusters. The I(MV)values range from -9.0 to -1.0 mag corresponding to a range in totalmass of the star clusters from ~ 25 to 4*E4 Msun.The integrated colours have a relatively narrow range, e.g., I(B-V){_0}varies from -0.4 to 1.2 mag. The scatter in integrated colours at agiven integrated magnitude can be understood in terms of differences infraction of red giants/supergiants in the clusters. The observedintegrated magnitudes and colours agree with the synthetic ones, exceptthe dependences of I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0 colours forclusters younger than ~ 100 Myrs and also of the integrated magnitudesof oldest clusters. The large sample provides the most accurate agedependence of integrated magnitudes and colours determined so far. Theluminosity function of the I(MV) has a peak around -3.5 magand its slope indicates that only ~ 1% of the open clusters in thegalactic disc are brighter than I(MV)=-11 mag. No variationhas been found of integrated magnitude with galactocentric distance andmetallicity.

Membership in the Region of the Double Cluster h and χ Persei Working from Proper Motions and Positions: Distance Moduli and Extinction in That Galactic Direction
A segregation between cluster members and field stars in the region ofthe double cluster h and χ Persei is accomplished working fromproper motions and positions as kinematic random variables. Theextinction RV and the distance moduli are determined once thephysical cluster members are found.

Morphological analysis of open clusters' propertiesI. Properties' estimations
A sample of 160 UBVCCD observations of open star clusters near thegalactic plane has been studied, and a catalogue of their propertiesobtained. The main photometrical properties have been re-estimated selfconsistently and the results have been compared with those of Lynga[Lynga, G., 1987. Catalog of Open Cluster Data, 5th Edition, StellarData Centers, Observatoire de Strasbourg, France].

Spectroscopic investigations of classical Cepheids and main-sequence stars in galactic open clusters and associations. I. Association Cas OB2 and the small-amplitude Cepheid SU Cassiopeae
The small-amplitude Cepheid SU Cas and four membersof the association Cas OB2 (HD 16893, HD17327a and b, HD 17443) were investigated,using high-resolution CCD spectra. The following results were obtained:1) All these objects have the same metallicity values, close to that ofthe Sun; 2) Elemental abundance indicates that SU Cas is a post firstdredge-up star with an age from 1 108 to 1.45 108yr, and it is not crossing the Cepheid instability strip for the firsttime. The mean value of log g = 2.35 corresponds to pulsations in thefundamental tone, although errors in gravity estimations provideovertone pulsations. The questions about its pulsational mode andmembership in Cas OB2 remained open; 3) HD17327a is a slowly rotating HgMn-star with the highest heliumcontent among such objects, while HD 16893 also has a manganeseoverabundance and might be classified as an Am-star; 4) HD17327b and HD 17443 are rapidly rotating main-sequence stars,while HD 17443 has a helium content comparable with that of the Sun.

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

New Observations on Classical Cepheids DL Cas and FM Cas
Not Available

Statistical parallaxes and kinematical parameters of classical Cepheids and young star clusters
The statistical-parallax method is applied for the first time to spacevelocities of 270 classical Cepheids with proper motions adopted fromHIPPARCOS (1997) and TRC (Hog et al. 1998) catalogs and distances basedon the period-luminosity relation by Berdnikov et al. (1996). Thedistance scale of short-period Cepheids (with periods less than 9 days)is shown to require an average correction of 15-20%, whereas statisticalparallaxes of Cepheids with periods > 9 days are found to agree wellwith photometric distances. It is shown that the luminosities ofshort-period Cepheids must have been underestimated partly due to thecontamination of this subsample by a substantial (20 to 40%) fraction offirst-overtone pulsators. The statistical-parallax technique is alsoapplied for the first time to 117 open clusters younger than 100 millionyears and with proper motions reduced to the HIPPARCOS reference system.It is concluded that a 0.12-0.15 mag increase of the distance scales ofopen clusters and Cepheids would be sufficient to reconcile thestatistical-parallax results inferred for these two types of objects.Such approach leads to an LMC distance modulus of less than 18.40 mag,which agrees, within the errors, with the short distance scale for RRLyrae variables and is at variance with the conclusions by Feast andCatchpole (1998) and Feast et al. (1998), who argue that the LMCdistance modulus should be increased to 18.70 mag. The distance scalebased on the Cepheid period-luminosity relation by Berdnikov and Efremov(1985) seems to be a good compromise. Extragalactic distances, whichrely on long-period Cepheids, seem to require no substantial correction.In addition to statistical parallaxes, kinematical parameters have beeninferred for the combined sample consisting of Cepheids andopen-clusters: solar-motion components (U0 ,V0,W0) = (9, 12, 7) km/s (+/- 1 km/s); velocity-ellipsoid axes(σU; σV; σW) = (15.0,10.3, 8.5) km/s (+/- 1 km/s); the angular velocity of rotation of thesubsystem, ω0 = 28.7 +/- 1 km/s/kpc, the Oort constantA = 17.4 +/- 1.5 km/s, and the second derivative of angular velocity,⋰ω0= 1.15 +/- 0.2 km/s/kpc3.

Cepheids as Distance Indicators
This review attempts to summarize the various ways of determiningCepheid reddenings and luminosities and the zero points of the Cepheidperiod-luminosity and period-luminosity-color relations. The methods ofdetermining luminosities that are discussed involve Cepheid parallaxes,Cepheid proper motions and radial velocities, Cepheids in clusters andassociations, Baade-Wesselink luminosities of Cepheids, and Cepheids inbinary systems. The review also considers the calibration of the Cepheidscale via independent estimates of the distance modulus of the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) using Mira and RR Lyrae variables, eclipsingbinaries, the red giant clump, and the ring around SN 1987A. The LMCresults are particularly useful as one test of possible metallicityeffects on the Cepheid scale. In addition, the results of othermetallicity tests based on the Magellanic Clouds and more distantgalaxies are considered. High weight is given in this review toempirical results obtained with the least number of additionalassumptions, and results which are based primarily on theory are notconsidered.

A new double-mode Cepheid in Cassiopeia
We present discovery and investigation of a new beat Cepheid, pulsatingin the fundamental and the first overtone modes

Positions and Proper Motions in the Area of the Open Cluster NGC 129
Positions and magnitudes were derived for 537 stars in the area of theopen cluster NGC 129. Combining these positions with data from the threeother sources, proper motions could be derived for 86 stars.

Absolute proper motions of 181 young open clusters.
Not Available

Deep CCD photometry and the initial mass function of the core of the OB cluster Berkeley 86.
Based on photometry of deep CCD frames of the central region of the OBcluster Berkeley 86, we derive the cluster mass function. The absence ofcurrent star formation, and the cluster's young age of about 6Myrs,leads to the conclusion that the initial mass function (IMF) and thecurrent mass function are identical for stars withm<10msun_. In the range of 1.2-20msun_, an IMFwith a slope of {GAMMA}=-1.3+/-0.3 is found. This value agrees well withother recent determinations of young clusters IMFs which are close tothe classical Salpeter IMF with {GAMMA}=-1.35. Sections of the IMF ofBerkeley 86 that are significantly steeper, or flatter, are most likelythe result of a dip in the star's mass distribution in the range of3.5-10msun_. Similar dips may have led to steep IMFs overnarrow mass ranges, as reported in the literature for some otherclusters. No sign for a low mass turn-over in the IMF of Berkeley 86 isfound for masses extending down to 0.85 msun _.

DDO Metal Abundances of High-Luminosity Late-Type Stars in Galactic Open Clusters
Results from UBV and DDO photometry are presented for 54 high-luminositylate-type stars in the fields of 23 open clusters. The probability ofcluster membership for each observed star is evaluated using twoindependent photometric criteria. It is found that 32 stars are verylikely cluster members, the remaining ones being almost certainly fieldobjects. The recently improved calibrations of the DDO system have beenused to derive MK spectral types, effective temperatures, andmetallicities, while E(B-V) color excesses have been determined throughknown photometric and spectroscopic procedures. The DDO metallicitiesrange between values typical of moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=~ -0.3) tomoderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] =~ 0.2) clusters. The masses of thecluster giants range between 1 and 4 solar masses, with the scatterwithin a cluster being less than 1 solar mass. (SECTION: StellarClusters and Associations)

Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.
We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.

The Progenitors of Classical Cepheid Variables
Properties are deduced for the main-sequence O and B-type stars thatwere the immediate progenitors to classical Cepheids belonging to thelocal sample of galactic calibrating clusters. The sample of suchclusters and stellar groups is presently large enough to allow thederivation of statistically-significant properties related to theirCepheid members. In particular, the turnoff point colour for a clusteris demonstrated to be linearly related to the pulsational period (Po) ofits associated Cepheid via the empirical relationship: (B=96V)o(turnoff) =3D =960.057 =96 0.113= log Po; the masses of stars at the redturnoff point for the cluster follow a semi-empirical relationshipdescribed by: log M(RTO)/Ms =3D +0.36 + 0.50 log Po. The adoptedrelationship for the Cepheid progenitors is: log M/Ms =3D +0.41 + 0.50log Po. The properties deduced for Cepheid progenitors as a consequenceof these relationships reveal intriguing information about classicalCepheids themselves.

BVRIJHK period-luminosity relations for Galactic classical Cepheids.
Not Available

Observations of Clusters Using the Stromvil System. I. Standard Areas
A set of standard areas of the Stromvil system is described. Preliminaryvalues of the color indices for standard stars for photoelectric workmay be obtained from their published values in both parent (uvby andVilnius) systems. Stars in 19 open clusters already observed in bothsystems may be used as preliminary standards. Standard areas for the CCDwork are to be measured anew. For this, a set of 12 compact openclusters and globular clusters have been selected, six areas in eachhemisphere, mostly at declinations +30 deg and --30 deg. The 10--20arcmin areas will contain standard stars of 10--16 mag. They will begood for fixing the zero-point of magnitudes and color indices, for thedetermination of extinction coefficients in the Earth's atmosphere andfor the determination of color equations between instrumental CCDsystems and the standard Stromvil system. The first observations in thisprogram are planned with the new 1.8-m Vatican telescope on Mt. Graham,Arizona.

Independent Distance Determinations to Milky Way Cepheids in Open Clusters and Associations.II.CF CAS in NGC 7790
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AJ....110.2280M

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Right ascension:00h30m00.00s
Apparent magnitude:6.5

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NGC 2000.0NGC 129

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