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The Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies. I. Description and Initial Results
We introduce the Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG),a census of star formation in H I-selected galaxies. The survey consistsof Hα and R-band imaging of a sample of 468 galaxies selected fromthe H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). The sample spans three decadesin H I mass and is free of many of the biases that affect otherstar-forming galaxy samples. We present the criteria for sampleselection, list the entire sample, discuss our observational techniques,and describe the data reduction and calibration methods. This paperfocuses on 93 SINGG targets whose observations have been fully reducedand analyzed to date. The majority of these show a single emission linegalaxy (ELG). We see multiple ELGs in 13 fields, with up to four ELGs ina single field. All of the targets in this sample are detected inHα, indicating that dormant (non-star-forming) galaxies withMHI>~3×107 Msolar are veryrare. A database of the measured global properties of the ELGs ispresented. The ELG sample spans 4 orders of magnitude in luminosity(Hα and R band), and Hα surface brightness, nearly 3 ordersof magnitude in R surface brightness and nearly 2 orders of magnitude inHα equivalent width (EW). The surface brightness distribution ofour sample is broader than that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)spectroscopic sample, the EW distribution is broader than prism-selectedsamples, and the morphologies found include all common types ofstar-forming galaxies (e.g., irregular, spiral, blue compact dwarf,starbursts, merging and colliding systems, and even residual starformation in S0 and Sa spirals). Thus, SINGG presents a superior censusof star formation in the local universe suitable for further studiesranging from the analysis of H II regions to determination of the localcosmic star formation rate density.

Supernovae 2005E, 2005F, 2005G, 2005H, 2005I, 2005J
IAUC 8467 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Infrared mergers and infrared quasi-stellar objects with galactic winds - I. NGC 2623: nuclear outflow in a proto-elliptical candidate
We present the first results of a study of the morphology, kinematicsand ionization structure of infrared (IR) mergers/quasi-stellar objects(QSOs) with galactic winds. This study is based mainly on INTEGRALtwo-dimensional (2D) fibre spectroscopy [obtained on the 4.2-m WilliamHerschel Telescope (WHT), La Palma] combined with high-resolution HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) observations.Clear evidence of outflow (OF) from the nucleus of the luminous infraredmerger NGC 2623 is reported. Specifically: (i) the INTEGRAL 2D Hα,[N II] and [S II] emission line maps depict a cone-shaped extendednebula that emerges from the nucleus, with an aperture angle θ=100°+/- 5° and reaching a distance of ~3.2 kpc from the nucleus;(ii) inside the nebula and in the central region, all the emission-lineWHT spectra show low velocity blue/OF components, with= (-405 +/- 35) km s-1 and (iii) in theOF nebula, the emission line ratios are consistent with ionization by adusty nuclear starburst plus shock heating. These results are consistentwith a galactic wind process powered mainly by a nuclear starburst.The INTEGRAL 2D Hα and [N II]λ6583 velocity field (VF) mapsfor the main body of NGC 2623 (16.4 × 12.3 arcsec2;~5.9 × 4.4 kpc2) show outflow motion in the nuclear andthe Hα+[N II] nebular regions superposed on a general circularmotion. This circular motion prevails inside r~ 1.5 kpc, and for largerradii we detected non-circular motions. In the central region, theaverage observed rotation curve was fitted with a model corresponding toa single-component Plummer spherical potential. After the subtraction ofthe Plummer and an axisymmetric polynomial model, the residues of the VFin both cases indicate ejection as the origin of the cone nebula. Thefitted Plummer model implies a total mass of MT= 1.5 ×1010 Msolar and a spherical distribution of matterin the central region.The high-resolution HST WFPC2 F555W (~V) and F814W (~I) broad-bandimages display a strongly obscured nucleus in the apex of a smallnuclear cone, an asymmetrical clumpy spiral arm located to the east ofthe nucleus, a ring plus an arc to the west and several large-scalefilaments of dust. A good r1/4-law fit to the HST WFPC2 Iband luminosity profile was found.In 85 per cent of the INTEGRAL 2D field we measure very high values(>1) of the [N II]λ6583/Hα and [S II]λ6717 +31/Hα ratios, suggesting that shocks are important on large scales(in almost all the main body). Furthermore, the 2D full width at halfmaximum FWHM-[N II] and VF residual maps show a good spatialcorrelation, suggesting that the OF shocks ionize the gas and broadenthe emission lines. However, close to the nucleus, the OF nebula showslow values of the [N II]λ6583/Hα ratio (in the range0.1-0.4), indicating that photoionization by a dusty nuclear starburstalso plays a significant role in the excitation of the nebula. Thecharacteristics of the nucleus of NGC 2623 could be associated with astarburst-related LINER.The properties found in IR mergers/QSOs with galactic winds mainlyunderline the importance of studying the possible link between IRmergers with starburst + galactic wind -> IR QSOs with compositenature + galactic wind, and elliptical galaxies.

The Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived from 2-Dvelocity maps. Our main result is that the majority of the HicksonCompact Group (HCG) galaxies lie on the TF relation, although with largescatter. However, 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-masssystems, seem to have higher B luminosities, for a given mass, oralternatively, a mass which is too low for their luminosities. We favourthe scenario of brightening of the outliers due to either enhanced starformation or merging, rather than truncation of the dark halo due tointeractions, to explain the position of the outliers on the TFrelation.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

The Relation between Galaxy Activity and the Dynamics of Compact Groups of Galaxies
Using a sample of 91 galaxies distributed over 27 compact groups (CGs)of galaxies, we define an index that allows us to quantify their levelof activity due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star formation.By combining the mean activity index with the mean morphological type ofthe galaxies in a group, we are able to quantify the evolutionary stateof the groups. We find that they span an evolutionary sequence thatcorrelates with the spatial configuration of the galaxies in the CG. Wedistinguish three main configuration types: A, B, and C. Type A CGs showpredominantly low velocity dispersions and are rich in late-type spiralsthat show active star formation or harbor an AGN. Type B groups haveintermediate velocity dispersions and contain a large fraction ofinteracting or merging galaxies. Type C comprises CGs with high velocitydispersions, which are dominated by elliptical galaxies that show noactivity. We suggest that evolution proceeds A==>B==>C. Mappingthe groups with different evolution levels in a diagram of radius versusvelocity dispersion does not reveal the pattern expected based on theconventional fast merger model for CGs, which predicts a direct relationbetween these two parameters. Instead, we observe a trend contrary toexpectation: the evolutionary state of a group increases with velocitydispersion. This trend seems to be related to the masses of thestructures in which CGs are embedded. In general, the evolutionary stateof a group increases with the mass of the structure. This suggestseither that galaxies evolve more rapidly in massive structures or thatthe formation of CGs embedded in massive structures predated theformation of CGs associated with lower mass systems. Our observationsare consistent with the structure formation predicted by the CDM model(or ΛCDM), only if the formation of galaxies is a biased process.

An IRAS High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) Atlas of All Interacting Galaxies in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
The importance of far-infrared observations for our understanding ofextreme activity in interacting and merging galaxies has beenillustrated by many studies. Even though two decades have passed sinceits launch, the most complete all-sky survey to date from which far-IRselected galaxy samples can be chosen is still that of the InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS). However, the spatial resolution of theIRAS all-sky survey is insufficient to resolve the emission fromindividual galaxies in most interacting galaxy pairs, and hence previousstudies of their far-IR properties have had to concentrate either onglobal system properties or on the properties of very widely separatedand weakly interacting pairs. Using the HIRES image reconstructiontechnique, it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution ranging from30" to 1.5m (depending on wavelength and detector coverage), whichis a fourfold improvement over the normal resolution of IRAS. This issufficient to resolve the far-IR emission from the individual galaxiesin many interacting systems detected by IRAS, which is very importantfor meaningful comparisons with single, isolated galaxies. We presenthigh-resolution 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm images of 106 interactinggalaxy systems contained in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS,Sanders et al.), a complete sample of all galaxies having a 60 μmflux density greater than 5.24 Jy. These systems were selected to haveat least two distinguishable galaxies separated by less than threeaverage galactic diameters, and thus we have excluded very widelyseparated systems and very advanced mergers. Additionally, some systemshave been included that are more than three galactic diameters apart,yet have separations less than 4' and are thus likely to suffer fromconfusion in the RBGS. The new complete survey has the same propertiesas the prototype survey of Surace et al. We find no increased tendencyfor infrared-bright galaxies to be associated with other infrared-brightgalaxies among the widely separated pairs studied here. We find smallenhancements in far-IR activity in multiple galaxy systems relative toRBGS noninteracting galaxies with the same blue luminosity distribution.We also find no differences in infrared activity (as measured byinfrared color and luminosity) between late- and early-type spiralgalaxies.

A joint mid-infrared spectroscopic and X-ray imaging investigation of LINER galaxies
We present a comprehensive comparative high resolution mid-IRspectroscopic and X-ray imaging investigation of LINERs using archivalobservations from the ISO-SWS and the Chandra Advanced CCD ImagingSpectrometer. Although the sample is heterogenous and incomplete, thisis the first comprehensive study of the mid-infrared fine structure lineemission of LINERs. These results have been compared with similarobservations of starburst galaxies and AGN. We find that LINERs veryclearly fall between starbursts and AGN in their mid-IR fine structureline spectra, showing L[OIV]26 μm/LFIR andL[OIV]26 μm/L[NeII]12.8 μm ratios, bothmeasures of the dominant nuclear energy source in dust-enshroudedgalaxies, intermediate between those of AGN and starbursts. Chandraimaging observations of the LINERs reveal hard nuclear point sourcesmorphologically consistent with AGN in most (67%) of the sample, with aclear trend with IR-brightness. Most LINERs that show a single dominanthard compact X-ray core are IR-faint (LFIR/LB <1), whereas most LINERs that show scattered X-ray sources are IR-bright.A comparative X-ray/mid-IR spectroscopic investigation of LINERs revealssome puzzling results. Objects that display strong hard nuclear X-raycores should also display high excitation lines in the IR. However, wefind two LINERs disagree with this expectation. The galaxy NGC 404 showsweak soft X-ray emission consistent with a starburst but has the mostprominent highest excitation mid-IR spectrum of our entire sample. UsingIR emission line diagnostics alone, this galaxy would be classified ashosting a dominant AGN. Conversely, the IR luminous LINER NGC 6240 hasan extremely luminous binary AGN as revealed by the X-rays but showsweak IR emission lines. With the advent of SIRTF, and future IR missionssuch as Herschel and JWST, it is increasingly critical to determine theorigin of these multiwavelength anomalies.Table 2 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/825Table 3 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

Dynamical Effects of Interactions and the Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (T-F) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived fromtwo-dimensional velocity maps. Our main result is that the majority ofthe Hickson Compact Group galaxies lie on the T-F relation. However,about 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-mass systems, havehigher B luminosities for a given mass, or alternatively, a mass that istoo low for their luminosities. We favor a scenario in which outliershave been brightened because of either enhanced star formation ormerging. Alternatively, the T-F outliers may have undergone truncationof their dark halo due to interactions. It is possible that in somecases both effects contribute. The fact that the B-band T-F relation issimilar for compact group and field galaxies tells us that thesegalaxies show common mass-to-size relations and that the halos ofcompact group galaxies have not been significantly stripped insideR25. We find that 75% of the compact group galaxies studied(22 out of 29) have highly peculiar velocity fields. Nevertheless, acareful choice of inclination, position angle, and center, obtained fromthe velocity field, and an average of the velocities over a large sectorof the galaxy enabled the determination of fairly well-behaved rotationcurves for the galaxies. However, two of the compact group galaxies HCG91a and HCG 96a, which are the most massive members in M51-like pairs,have very asymmetric rotation curves, with one arm rising and the otherone falling, indicating most probably a recent perturbation by the smallclose companions.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

The Far-Infrared Energy Distributions of Seyfert and Starburst Galaxies in the Local Universe: Infrared Space Observatory Photometry of the 12 Micron Active Galaxy Sample
New far-infrared photometry with ISOPHOT aboard the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO) is presented for 58 galaxies with homogeneouspublished data for another 32 galaxies, all belonging to the 12 μmgalaxy sample-in total, 29 Seyfert 1 galaxies, 35 Seyfert 2 galaxies,and 12 starburst galaxies, or about half of the 12 μm active galaxysample, plus 14 normal galaxies for comparison. ISO and InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS) data are used to define color-colordiagrams and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Thermal dust emissionat two temperatures (one cold at 15-30 K and one warm at 50-70 K) canfit the 60-200 μm SED, with a dust emissivity law proportional to theinverse square of the wavelength. Seyfert 1 galaxies and Seyfert 2galaxies are indistinguishable longward of 100 μm, while, as alreadyseen by IRAS, the former have flatter SEDs shortward of 60 μm. A mildanticorrelation is found between the [200-100] color and the ``60 μmexcess.'' We infer that this is due to the fact that galaxies with astrong starburst component and thus a strong 60 μm flux have asteeper far-infrared turnover. In non-Seyfert galaxies, increasing theluminosity corresponds to increasing the star formation rate, whichenhances the 25 and 60 μm emission. This shifts the peak emissionfrom around 150 μm in the most quiescent spirals to shorter than 60μm in the strongest starburst galaxies. To quantify these trendsfurther, we identified with the IRAS colors three idealized infraredSEDs: pure quiescent disk emission, pure starburst emission, and pureSeyfert nucleus emission. Even between 100 and 200 μm, the quiescentdisk emission remains much cooler than the starburst component. Seyfertgalaxies have 100-200 μm SEDs ranging from pure disks to purestarbursts, with no apparent contribution from their active nuclei atthose wavelengths. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.

Infrared Observations of Active Galaxies
We report medium resolution, spectroscopic observations of a selectedsample of AGNs and Starburst galaxies, at wavelengths ranging from 1.1to 2.4 microns . Strong HI, HeI, H2 and [FeII] emission lineshave been detected, as well as stellar features, such as the CObandheads in both H- and K-band, and SiI, NaI, and CaI lines. Theexcitation mechanisms for the H2 emission are discussed.

X-ray luminosities of galaxies in groups
We have derived the X-ray luminosities of a sample of galaxies ingroups, making careful allowance for contaminating intragroup emission.The LX:LB and LX:LFIRrelations of spiral galaxies in groups appear to be indistinguishablefrom those in other environments, however the elliptical galaxies fallinto two distinct classes. The first class is central-dominant groupgalaxies, which are very X-ray luminous and may be the focus of groupcooling flows. All other early-type galaxies in groups belong to thesecond class, which populates an almost constant band ofLX/LB over the range9.8

Where is the neutral atomic gas in Hickson groups?
We have analyzed the total HI contents of 72 Hickson compact groups ofgalaxies (HCGs) and the detailed spatial distributions and kinematics ofHI within a subset of 16 groups using the high angular resolutionobservations obtained with the VLA in order to investigate a possibleevolutionary scenario for these densest systems in the present daygalaxy hierarchy. For the more homogeneous subsample of 48 groups, wefound a mean HI deficiency of Def_HI = 0.40 +/- 0.07, which correspondsto 40% of the expected HI for the optical luminosities and morphologicaltypes of the member galaxies. The individual galaxies show largerdegrees of deficiency than the groups globally, Def_HI = 0.62 +/- 0.09(24% of the expected HI), due in most cases to efficient gas strippingfrom individual galaxies into the group environment visible in the VLAmaps. The degree of deficiency is found to be similar to the centralgalaxies of Virgo and Coma cluster, and Coma I group, in spite of thesignificantly different characteristics (number of galaxies, velocitydispersion) of these environments. It does not seem plausible that asignificant amount of extended HI has been missed by the observations.Hence phase transformation of the atomic gas should explain the HIdeficiency. The groups richer in early type galaxies or more compactwith larger velocity dispersions show a weak tendency to be more HIdeficient. The detection rate of HCGs at X-ray wavelengths is larger forHI deficient groups, although the hot gas distribution and hence itsorigin is only known for a few cases. In the evolutionary scenario wepropose, the amount of detected HI would decrease further withevolution, by continuous tidal stripping and/or heating. The H_2 contentalso tends to be lower than expected for the galaxies in HI deficientgroups, this may suggest that the HI stripping by frequent tidalinteraction breaks the balance between the disruption of molecularclouds by star formation and the replenishment from the ambient HI. Thiswork is partially based on observations made with the VLA operated bythe National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the NationalScience Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by AssociatedUniversities, Inc., ALFOSC, which is owned by the Instituto deAstrofísica de Andalucía (IAA, CSIC) and operated at theNordic Optical Telescope (NOT) under agreement between IAA and the NBIfAof the Astronomical Observatory of Copenhagen, and 1.5 m telescope ofthe Observatorio de Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain, which is operated bythe IAA (CSIC).

XMM-Newton first-light observations of the Hickson galaxy group 16
This paper presents the XMM-Newton first-light observations of theHickson-16 compact group of galaxies. Groups are possibly the oldestlarge-scale structures in the Universe, pre-dating clusters of galaxies,and are highly evolved. This group of small galaxies, at a redshift of0.0132 (or 80 Mpc) is exceptional in the having the highestconcentration of starburst or AGN activity in the nearby Universe. So itis a veritable laboratory for the study of the relationship betweengalaxy interactions and nuclear activity. Previous optical emission linestudies indicated a strong ionising continuum in the galaxies, but itsorigin, whether from starbursts, or AGN, was unclear. Combined imagingand spectroscopy with the EPIC X-ray CCDs unequivocally reveals aheavily obscured AGN and a separately identified thermal (starburst)plasma, in NGC 835, NGC 833, & NGC 839. NGC 838 shows only starburstthermal emission. Starbursts and AGN can evidently coexist in members ofthis highly evolved system of merged and merging galaxies, implying ahigh probability for the formation of AGN as well as starbursts inpost-merger galaxies.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.

On the Influence of the Environment on the Star Formation Rates of a Sample of Galaxies in Nearby Compact Groups
We present the results of a study of the star formation rates (SFRs) ofa sample of disk galaxies in nearby compact groups compared with theSFRs of a sample of field galaxies. For this purpose, Hαluminosities and equivalent widths were derived for the galaxies of oursample. A direct comparison of the equivalent widths and Hαluminosities, normalized to the B luminosities and estimated area of thegalaxies of both samples, yields the result that the median values ofthese quantities are almost identical for both samples, although thedistributions for the compact-group sample are broader around the meanvalue than was found in the field galaxy sample. This result can beexplained by assuming that although interactions between galaxies incompact groups can alter the SFRs, the median value of the normalizedSFRs is preserved, being almost indistinguishable from the correspondingvalue for field galaxies. Measuring the global L_Hα/L_B of thegroups, including early-type galaxies, we find that most of the groupsthat show the highest level of L_Hα/L_B with respect to a set ofsynthetic groups built out of field galaxies show tidal features in atleast one of their members. Finally, we have explored the relationshipbetween the ratio L_Hα/L_B and several relevant dynamicalparameters of the groups: velocity dispersion, crossing time, radius,and the mass-to-luminosity ratio, finding no clear correlation. Thissuggests that the exact dynamical state of a group does not control theSFR of the group as a whole. Our results are compatible with a scenariofor compact groups of galaxies in which the dark matter of the group isarranged in a common halo, therefore preventing a fast collapse of thegalaxies.

HCG 16 Revisited: Clues about Galaxy Evolution in Groups
We present new spectroscopic observations of five galaxies, members ofthe unusually active compact group HCG 16, observed using the Palomar 5m telescope. The high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N~70) of the spectraallow us to study the variation of the emission-line characteristics andthe stellar populations in the nucleus and the circumnuclear regions ofthe galaxies. The emission-line characteristics of these galaxies arecomplex, varying between Seyfert 2's and LINERs or between LINERs andstarbursts. All of the galaxies show traces of intermediate-age stellarpopulations, which supports our previous result that poststarburstgalaxies are common in compact groups. The galaxies HCG 16-4 and HCG16-5 show double nuclei and therefore could be two cases of recentmerger. Our observations support a scenario in which HCG 16 was formedby the successive merger of metal-poor, low-mass galaxies. The galaxiesHCG 16-1 and HCG 16-2, which are more evolved, form the old core of thegroup. Galaxies HCG 16-4 and HCG 16-5 are two more recent additions thatare still in a merging phase. Galaxy HCG 16-5 is a starburst galaxy thatis just beginning to fall into the core. If HCG 16 is representative ofcompact groups in their early stage, the whole set of observationsimplies that the formation of compact groups is the result ofhierarchical galaxy formation. HCG 16 could be one example of thisprocess operating in the local universe.

Clumpy diffuse X-ray emission from the spiral-rich compact galaxy group HCG 16
We carefully reanalyze the ROSAT PSPC X-ray spectro-photometricobservations of HCG 16 (Arp 318), and compare them to optical and radiodata. Its X-ray morphology resembles its morphology at 20 cm, seen bythe NVSS. In particular, we detect diffuse emission in eight regionsfilling half of the 200 h50-1 kpc (8farcm 7)radius circle around the optical center of the group: one regionencompassing galaxies a & b, two regions surrounding the groupgalaxies c & d, a clumpy region roughly 140h50-1 kpc from the group galaxies, which may begas ejected from one of the galaxies, plus regions respectivelyassociated with a background radio-source, a probable backgroundradio-source, a foreground star and a background group or cluster. Thebolometric X-ray luminosity of the diffuse emission, excluding theregions associated with radio galaxies, is L_X bol = 2.3 x1041} h50{-2 erg s-1, i.e.,half of the luminosity found by \cite{PBEB96}. The region that is offsetfrom the galaxies contributes half of the diffuse X-ray luminosity ofthe group. The diffuse emission is cool (T < 0.55 keV with 90%confidence with a best fit T = 0.27 keV). At these low temperatures, thecorrection for photoelectric absorption in the estimate of bolometricluminosity is a factor 3.5 and varies rapidly with temperature, hence anuncertain bolometric luminosity. The clumpy distribution of hot diffusegas in HCG 16 is illustrated by the low mean X-ray surface brightnessand hot gas density of the regions of undetected emission within 8' (atmost 1/4 and 1/6 of those of the detected gas, assuming both have sametemperature, metallicity and clumpiness). The irregular X-ray morphologyof the diffuse emission rules out a (nearly) virialized nature for HCG16, unless intergalactic gas had sufficiently high specific entropy tobe unable to collapse with the group. In any event, the clumpy gasdistribution, and high luminosity given the low temperature suggest thatmost of the diffuse gas originates from galaxies, either through tidalstripping or through galactic winds driven by supernova remnants.Therefore, no spiral-only HCGs are known with regular diffuse emissiontracing a gravitational potential. Our results highlight the need for acareful 2D spatial analysis and multi-wavelength study of the diffuseX-ray emission from groups, suggesting that other compact groups couldbe significantly contaminated by superimposed X-ray sources.

Atlas of H alpha Emission of a Sample of Nearby Hickson Compact Groups of Galaxies
H alpha and adjacent continuum images are presented for a sample ofnearby groups of galaxies extracted from the Atlas of Compact Groups ofGalaxies. Also, more detailed H alpha maps of the most remarkablegalaxies are shown in this paper. A short description of the H alphaemission for each of the galaxies with accordant redshift is presentedtogether with a morphological classification of the accordant galaxiesin the sample. A large fraction of ellipticals and lenticulars weredetected in H alpha . Also, clear signs of interactions were found inseven of the groups, but in only in three of them was H alpha emissiondetected along the tidal features. Candidates of dwarf galaxies werefound at the tips of the tidal tails developed during the interactionsin these three groups.

Extended Ionized Gas Emission and Kinematics of the Compact Group Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 16: Signatures of Mergers
We report on kinematic observations of Hα emission from fourlate-type galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 16 (H16a, b, c, d) obtainedwith a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and samplings of 16 km s^-1and 1". The velocity fields show kinematic peculiarities for three ofthe four galaxies: H16b, H16c, and H16d. Misalignments between thekinematic and photometric axes of gas and stellar components(H16b-H16d), double gas systems (H16c) and severe warping of thekinematic major axis (H16b and H16c) were some of the peculiaritiesdetected. We conclude that major merger events have taken place in atleast two of the galaxies of the group, H16c and H16d, based on theirsignificant kinematic peculiarities, their double nuclei, and their highinfrared luminosities. Their Hα gas content is strongly spatiallyconcentrated; H16d contains a peculiar barlike structure confined to theinner ~1 h^-1 kpc region. These observations are in agreement withpredictions of simulations, namely, that the gas flows toward the galaxynucleus during mergers, forms bars, and fuels the central activity.Galaxy H16b, an Sb galaxy, also presents some of the kinematic evidencefor past accretion events. Its gas content, however, is very sparse,limiting our ability to find other kinematic merging indicators, if theyare present. We find that the merger remnants in the compact group HCG16 have significantly smoother optical profiles than isolated mergers,i.e., they show an amorphous morphology and no signs of tidal tails.Tidal arms and tails formed during the mergers may have been stripped bythe group potential, or, alternatively, they may have never been formed.The velocity field of the galaxy H16a shows grand-design isovelocitylines with no signs of disturbances inside a radius of ~R_25. Thisresult is contrary to expectations given that the galaxy has a highinfrared luminosity, central activity, tidal tails at large radii, andis embedded in a common group envelope observed in H I and X-rays. Thenormality of the velocity field suggests that this galaxy may be afairly recent acquisition of the compact group. Our observations suggestthat HCG 16 may be a young compact group in formation through themerging of close-by objects in a dense environment.

The Evolution of Galaxies in Compact Groups
We present an analysis of the spectra of 62 galaxies in 15 compactgroups. The galaxies are classified into four activity classes: galaxieswithout emission, starburst galaxies, luminous AGNs (Seyfert andLINERs), and low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). The star formation in theHickson compact group (HCG) starbursts is more intense than in normalspirals, but comparable to that observed in starburst-nucleus galaxies(SBNGs) in the field. In general, the HCG starbursts have mean solar gasmetallicity and do not follow the metallicity-luminosity relation tracedby the early-type SBNGs in the field, suggesting that most of them arelate-type SBNGs. This morphology preference, coupled with theobservation that the HCG starbursts are predominantly located in thehalos of the groups, is consistent with the idea that compact groups areembedded in sparser structures. The stellar metallicities of thenonstarburst galaxies are comparable to those observed in normalgalaxies with similar morphologies, but are relatively high for theirluminosities. In these galaxies, the metal absorption line equivalentwidths are slightly narrower than normal, while the Balmer absorptionlines are relatively strong. All these observations suggest the presenceof a population of intermediate-age stars. These galaxies could bepoststarburst, but at a very advanced stage of evolution, the lastbursts having happened more than 2 Gyr in the past. Our observationssupport a scenario in which the cores of the groups are slowlycollapsing evolved systems embedded in more extended structures. In thecores of the groups, the interactions were more frequent and thegalaxies evolved at a more rapid rate than in their halos.

A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment
A comparison of the COBE 1 Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment(DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the IRASCatalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalogof Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In thispaper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and ananalysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at lambda > 100 mum. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) componentdetected at Td = 20-30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with Td ~10-15 K suggest that between 2%-100% of the cirrus-like CD mass can alsoexist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBEphotometry at 240 mu m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may bepresent as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimetermeasurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a largepopulation of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in thesky region not previously surveyed by IRAS and that can be used toconstruct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65%.

Effects of Interaction-induced Activities in Hickson Compact Groups: CO and Far-Infrared Study
A study of 2.6 mm CO J = 1 --> 0 and far-infrared (FIR) emission in adistance-limited (z < 0.03) complete sample of Hickson compact group(HCG) galaxies was conducted in order to examine the effects of theirunique environment on the interstellar medium of component galaxies andto search for a possible enhancement of star formation and nuclearactivity. Ubiquitous tidal interactions in these dense groups wouldpredict enhanced activities among the HCG galaxies compared to isolatedgalaxies. Instead, their CO and FIR properties (thus, "star formationefficiency") are surprisingly similar to isolated spirals. The CO datafor 80 HCG galaxies presented here (including 10 obtained from theliterature) indicate that the spirals globally show the same H2 contentas the isolated comparison sample, although 20% are deficient in COemission. Because of their large optical luminosity, low metallicity isnot likely the main cause for the low CO luminosity. The CO deficiencyappears linked with the group evolution, and gas exhaustion through paststar formation and removal of the external gas reserve by tidalstripping of the outer H I disk offer a possible explanation. The IRASdata for the entire redshift-limited complete sample of 161 HCG galaxieswere reanalyzed using ADDSCAN/SCANPI, improving the sensitivity by afactor of 3-5 over the existing Point Source Catalog (PSC) and resolvingbetter the contribution from individual galaxies. The new analysis ofthe IRAS data confirms the previous suggestion that FIR emission in HCGgalaxies is similar to isolated, Virgo Cluster, and weakly interactinggalaxies. Their H2 and FIR characteristics yield a star formationefficiency that is similar to that of these comparison samples. A factor2 enhancement in the 25-100 mu m flux ratio among the HCG spirals isfound, which suggests intense localized nuclear starburst activitysimilar to that of H II galaxies. A number of early-type galaxies inHCGs are detected in CO and FIR, lending further support to the ideathat tidal interactions and tidally induced evolution of the groups andmember galaxies are important in our sample.

Structural and Dynamical Analysis of the Hickson Compact Groups
Based on the spectroscopic survey of de Carvalho et al., we analyze thestructural and dynamical properties of 17 Hickson compact groups. Thisanalysis probes a region of 0.dg5 x 0.dg5 around each group and showsthat most of them are part of larger structures. Our results alsosuggest that the Hickson sample is composed of different dynamicalstages of the groups" evolution. Specifically, we identify threepossible evolutionary phases among groups in the sample: loose groups,core + halo systems, and compact groups, each one presenting a distinctsurface density profile. This sequence is consistent with thereplenishment scenario for the formation and evolution of compact groupswithin larger and less dense systems.

The Nature of the Activity in Hickson Compact Groups of Galaxies
We present the results of the spectral classification of the 82brightest galaxies in a sample of 17 compact groups. We verify that theactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially located in the mostearly-type and luminous galaxies of the groups, as is usually observedin the field. But these AGNs also appear to be systematicallyconcentrated toward the central parts of the groups. Our observationssuggest a correlation between activity types, morphologies, anddensities of galaxies in the compact groups. This is consistent with ascenario in which galaxies of compact groups evolve by interacting withtheir environment and are currently in a quiet phase of their activity.

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Right ascension:02h09m38.50s
Aparent dimensions:1.38′ × 0.977′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 838

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