Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 3299



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

New Dwarf Galaxy Candidates in the Leo-I Group
We have carried out a search for low-surface-brightness dwarf galaxiesin the region of the Leo-I Group (M96) in images of the second PalomarSky Survey. We found a total of 36 likely dwarf members of the groupwith typical magnitudes B t ˜18m 19m in an area of sky covering 120square degrees. Half of these galaxies are absent from known catalogsand lists of galaxies. The radial-velocity dispersion calculated for 19galaxies is 130 km/s. The Leo-I Group has a mean distance from the Sunof 10.4 Mpc, a mean projected radius of 352 kpc, an integratedluminosity of 6.7 × 1010 L ȯ, a virial mass-to-luminosityratio of 107 M ȯ/L ȯ, and a mean crossing time of 2.7 Gyr. Thegroup shows evidence for a radial segregation of the galaxies accordingto morphological type and luminosity, suggesting that the group is in astate of dynamical relaxation. The subsystem of bright galaxies in theLeo-I Group is smaller in size (250 kpc) and has a lower velocitydispersion (92 km/s), resulting in a lower virial mass-to-luminosityratio (34 M ȯ/L ȯ), as is typical of the Local Group and othernearby groups of galaxies.

A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies
We present an all-sky catalog of 451 nearby galaxies, each having anindividual distance estimate D<~10 Mpc or a radial velocityVLG<550 km s-1. The catalog contains data onbasic optical and H I properties of the galaxies, in particular, theirdiameters, absolute magnitudes, morphological types, circumnuclearregion types, optical and H I surface brightnesses, rotationalvelocities, and indicative mass-to-luminosity and H I mass-to-luminosityratios, as well as a so-called tidal index, which quantifies the galaxyenvironment. We expect the catalog completeness to be roughly 70%-80%within 8 Mpc. About 85% of the Local Volume population are dwarf (dIr,dIm, and dSph) galaxies with MB>-17.0, which contributeabout 4% to the local luminosity density, and roughly 10%-15% to thelocal H I mass density. The H I mass-to-luminosity and the H Imass-to-total (indicative) mass ratios increase systematically fromgiant galaxies toward dwarfs, reaching maximum values about 5 in solarunits for the most tiny objects. For the Local Volume disklike galaxies,their H I masses and angular momentum follow Zasov's linear relation,expected for rotating gaseous disks being near the threshold ofgravitational instability, favorable for active star formation. We foundthat the mean local luminosity density exceeds 1.7-2.0 times the globaldensity, in spite of the presence of the Tully void and the absence ofrich clusters in the Local Volume. The mean local H I density is 1.4times its ``global'' value derived from the H I Parkes Sky Survey.However, the mean local baryon densityΩb(<8Mpc)=2.3% consists of only a half of the globalbaryon density, Ωb=(4.7+/-0.6)% (Spergel et al.,published in 2003). The mean-square pairwise difference of radialvelocities is about 100 km s-1 for spatial separations within1 Mpc, increasing to ~300 km s-1 on a scale of ~3 Mpc. alsoWe calculated the integral area of the sky occupied by the neighboringgalaxies. Assuming the H I size of spiral and irregular galaxies to be2.5 times their standard optical diameter and ignoring any evolutioneffect, we obtain the expected number of the line-of-sight intersectionswith the H I galaxy images to be dn/dz~0.4, which does not contradictthe observed number of absorptions in QSO spectra.

The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxies
We discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sample
A sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and ``classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

HI properties of nearby galaxies from a volume-limited sample
We consider global HI and optical properties of about three hundrednearby galaxies with V_0 < 500 km s(-1) . The majority of them haveindividual photometric distance estimates. The galaxy sample parametersshow some known and some new correlations implying a meaningful dynamicexplanation: 1) In the whole range of diameters, 1 - 40 Kpc, the galaxystandard diameter and rotational velocity follows a nearly linearTully-Fisher relation, lg A25~(0.99+/-0.06)lg V_m. 2) The HImass-to-luminosity ratio and the HI mass-to-``total" mass (inside thestandard optical diameter) ratio increase systematically from giantgalaxies towards dwarfs, reaching maximum values 5 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯand 3, respectively. 3) For all the Local Volume galaxies their totalmass-to-luminosity ratio lies within a range of [0.2-16]M_ȯ/L_ȯ with a median of 3.0 ;M_ȯ/L_ȯ. TheM25/L ratio decreases slightly from giant towards dwarfgalaxies. 4) The M_HI/L and M25/L ratios for the samplegalaxies correlate with their mean optical surface brightness, which maybe caused by star formation activity in the galaxies. 5) The M_HI/L andM25/L ratios are practically independent of the local massdensity of surrounding galaxies within the range of densities of aboutsix orders of magnitude. 6) For the LV galaxies their HI mass andangular momentum follow a nearly linear relation: lgM_HI~(0.99+/-0.04)lg (V_m* A25), expected for rotatinggaseous disks being near the threshold of gravitational instability,favourable for active star formation. Table in the Appendix is availableonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp//cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Kinematics of the Local Universe. V. The value of H_0_ from the Tully-Fisher B and logD_25_ relations for field galaxies.
We have studied the value of the Hubble constant using the KLUN(Kinematics of the Local Universe) sample of 5171 spiral galaxies havingisophotal diameters D_25_ (and partially B-magnitudes), Hi line widths,and radial velocities. The sample is diameter-limited, complete down toD_25_=1.6arcmin. As in the first similar study, where a much smallermagnitude-limited sample was used (Bottinelli et al. 1986), we payspecial attention to the problem of Malmquist bias when photometricdistances are derived by the Tully-Fisher diameter or magnituderelations. The bias is revealed and overcome by a more advanced versionof the method of normalized distances, now taking into account, inaddition to diameter and magnitude limits, also Hubble type effect,inclination effect, and variable galactic extinction. Calibration of theTully-Fisher relations is primarily performed using a sample of 15galaxies with available Cepheid distances, mostly from the HSTprogrammes. This sample does not show significant trends with distanceand is concluded to be closely distance-limited. Analysis of the logH_0_vs. d_normalized_ diagrams allows us to identify the "unbiased plateaus"for both the diameter and magnitude TF distances. A useful tool hereintroduced is the theoretical expectation of the bias in cumulative as a function of the fraction of the sample accepted forthe plateau. An iterative approach is utilized for determining the TFrelations, the plateau, and the value of H_0_ therefrom. Using thePeebles linear velocity field model with Virgo and our infall velocitiesequal to 980km/s and 150km/s, respectively, we derived the followingvalues of H_0_: H_0_=53.4+/-5.0km/s/Mpc (N_gal_=415) from the magnituderelation, and H_0_=56.7+/-4.9km/s/Mpc (N_gal_=403) from the diameterrelation. The given 1σ-errors refer to the statistical scatteraround the adopted calibration, and the dispersion of the calibratorsample itself. These H_0_ values are not sensitive to reasonable changesin the kinematical parameters of the velocity field model, up to theextreme ones found in literature. This insensitivity is also expectedfrom our numerical experiments. In the radial velocity space, theunbiased plateau extends up to about 6000km/s and the value of H_0_ isin good agreement with the SNIa results by Sandage et al. (1996, inpress) which extend to still larger velocities. At present, thesupernovae method and the KLUN TF-sample, both calibrated with Cepheiddistances, provide complementary approaches to H_0_ in different, thoughoverlapping, redshift ranges. As an additional result, the normalizeddistance method provides a natural way to estimate the Local Groupinfall velocity by minimizing the logH_0_ dispersion in the unbiasedplateau. Using the diameter and the magnitude TF relations respectively,we obtained, as preliminary results, the following values:v_0_=225+/-45km/s, and v_0_=185+/-40km/s. These values are compatiblewith our standard value within 2 σ and agree particulary well withSandage's preferred value v_0_=220km/s.

A Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of Galaxies behind the Virgo Cluster and toward Its Antipode
We present a catalog of 1268 galaxies, essentially complete to B <=17.0, found by scanning glass copies of several fields of the originalPalomar Sky Survey using the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner in itsisodensitometric mode (as opposed to the threshold densitometric modeused in the APS Catalog of the POSS I). In addition to the differentscanning mode, we have employed a different star-galaxy separationmethod and have visually inspected POSS prints to verify that each imageremaining in the catalog is nonstellar. The scanned fields aredistributed generally in two areas, one around the outskirts of theVirgo Cluster, the other toward the antipode of the cluster (but stillin the northern celestial hemisphere). The catalog gives the position ofthe center of each galaxy; estimates of the blue and red magnitudeswithin the outermost threshold crossing and of the blue magnitudeextrapolated to zero surface brightness; and the blue and red diametersof four ellipses fitted to the four threshold crossings (approximately23.8,23.6,23.2, and 22.7 mag arcsec 2 in blue, and 22.5,22.4,21.5, and21.2 mag arcsec^-2^ in red), and the ellipticities of those fourellipses. The catalog has served as a base from which to draw targetsfor a Tully-Fisher study of the Virgocentric infall velocity of theLocal Group.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Global properties of dwarf galaxies. I. Galaxy sample and IRAS infrared flux-densities
We have selected a sample of 278 dwarf galaxies for which at least Bmagnitudes and preferably also optical colour information are available.For those galaxies that have no previously published IRAS fluxes, wehave used the IRAS database to extract fluxes or upper limits tosensitivity levels significantly better than those of the IRAS PointSource Catalog. New IRAS data include 79 galaxies detected in at leastone band, and 66 galaxies with good upper limits. In total, about 60% ofall dwarf galaxies in the sample now have been detected at 60/100μm.

Global properties of dwarf galaxies II. Colours and luminosities
We have used a previously determined sample of 278 dwarf galaxies formost of which B magnitudes, optical colours, HI fluxes and IRASflux-densities are known, in order to derive luminosities, colours andsurface brightnesses. Dwarf galaxy properties are compared to those of acontrol sample of 228 larger spiral galaxies. The dwarf galaxies have onaverage higher 60/100μm flux ratios and lower 12/25μm flux ratiosthan the spiral galaxies, indicating that the contribution of `cirrus'to the infrared emission from dwarf galaxies is relativelyinsignificant. In the dwarf galaxies, the 60/100μm flux ratioincreases with increasing optical blueness; spiral galaxies show theopposite. Dwarf galaxies with a low optical surface brightness have low100μm/HI ratios, but the converse is not true. Galaxies with high100μm/HI ratios (indicative of high dust-to-gas ratios) also havehigh FIR/B ratios as well as high 60/100μm flux-density ratios.Although this is true for both spiral and dwarf galaxies, at given100μm/HI ratios the dwarf galaxies have both a lower FIR/B ratio anda higher 60/100μm flux-density ratio. This result is of importance inthe interpretation of FIR/B - 60/100μm diagrams in terms of starformation activity.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Far-infrared luminosity functions of normal galaxies
A volume-limited sample is constructed from the Zwicky catalog and IRASdata base to examine the FIR luminosity functions of normal galaxies,and to investigate possible relationships between FIR emission andgalaxy morphology. Quantitative and unbiased treatment is provided by'survival analysis' statistical methods. It is found that the FIRdistributions of normal galaxies are better fit by lognormal thanSchechter functions. The total FIR emissivity (8 to 115 microns) ofnormal galaxies is approximately equal to half their emission in the Bplus V optical bands. Normal galaxy FIR emission is uncorrelated withthe basic S0-Sm Hubble sequence of spiral galaxy morphology, but appearsto be affected by de Vaucouleurs' (1959) revised morphologicalclassifications based on inner rings and S-shaped arms. Spirals withbars and inner rings are systematically fainter than unbarred spirals.It is suggested that bars and rings reduce the amount or spatiallyconfine the dust in spiral disks, resulting in lower efficiencyconversion of optical and UV photons into the IR.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

Neutral hydrogen in the M96 group - The galaxies and the intergalactic ring
The M96 group is examined at 21 cm to study the galaxies' neutralhydrogen content and to search for evidence of interactions that mighthelp explain the origin of the large intergalactic H I feature foundthere. M96, an Sab spiral, has 90 percent of its H I concentratedoutside of the central bright optical disk - possibly capturedintergalactic gas. The ringlike distribution of the intergalactic gasmay be shaped by interactions with M96. An extremely faint dwarfirregular galaxy was also found. Questions about the distance andmembership of the M96 group are addressed. It is shown that manyprevious group catalogs must be in error. A mass-to-light ratio of lessthan 30 is found for the M96 group. A number of previous estimates areinflated by inclusion of background galaxies.

Isolated Triplets of Galaxies - a Complete Summary of Radial Velocities and Reduced Data
Not Available

Uncertainties in 21 centimeter redshifts. I - Data
High-precision data on the 21-cm redshifts, profile widths, and shapesfor 625 galaxies are presented. Each galaxy is listed in across-identification and morphology table. High-resolution spectra arealso given for each galaxy. Internal redshift consistency is roughly 1km/s for galaxies for which the S/N is above 15. No systematic effectshave been found which might influence the observed redshift quantizationat 72.5 km/s or its submultiples.

The case for H0 roughly 55 from the 21 centimeter linewidth absolute magnitude relation for field galaxies
It is argued that the high value of the Hubble constant H0 near 100obtained consistently in some programs that use the 21 cm linewidthcorrelation with H-band absolute magnitude is too large due tostatistical bias in the field galaxy catalogs, insufficiently correctedfor. The consequence of the bias is that an apparent increase of H0 withdistance is an artifact caused by use of flux-limited samples. TheTully-Fisher (TF) method is applied to the Kraan-Korteweg and Tammann(KKT) distance-limited 500 km/s local galaxy sample, and a value of H0 =56 + or - 13 km/s/Mpc is obtained. Larger values reaching as high as H0- 68 + or - 18 are obtained from the flux-limited catalogs used here,after attempting to correct them for bias. It is concluded thatincompleteness of the present flux-limited catalogs makes the valuesobtained in this way uncertain. It is argued that no presently availabledistance-limited 21 cm samples exist other than the KKT catalog withwhich to obtain an unaided value of H0 using the TF method.

H I observations of galaxies in the Kraan-Korteweg-Tammann catalogue of nearby galaxies. III - Global parameters of the galaxies
Global parameters for 146 galaxies in a nearly complete sample of nearbygalaxies with v0 = 500 km/s or less are derived from H I observations.Relations among global parameters (e.g., morphological type, absolutemagnitude, and corrected 21-cm line width) are discussed. TheTully-Fisher relation for this sample turns out to be very similar tothe solution from the calibrating sample of 130 galaxies. Otherrelations providing distance information are discussed as well. Theparameters representing total mass are involved in the tightestcorrelations found in this study. The total mass, the H I mass, and theblue luminosity are all approximately proportional to the disk surfacearea. The mass-to-light ratio is practically independent ofmorphological type. Likewise, the pseudo H I surface brightness can berepresented by a constant value for all galaxies with types later thanSc.

Arm classifications for spiral galaxies
The spiral arm classes of 762 galaxies are tabulated; 636 galaxies withlow inclinations and radii larger than 1 arcmin were classified on thebasis of their blue images on the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS),76 SA galaxies in the group catalog of Geller and Huchra were alsoclassified from the POSS, and 253 galaxies in high-resolution atlaseswere classified from their atlas photographs. This spiral armclassification system was previously shown to correlate with thepresence of density waves, and galaxies with such waves were shown tooccur primarily in the densest galactic groups. The present sampleindicates, in addition, that grand design galaxies (i.e., those whichtend to contain prominent density wave modes) are physically larger thanflocculent galaxies (which do not contain such prominent modes) by afactor of about 1.5. A larger group sample confirms the previous resultthat grand design galaxies are preferentially in dense groups.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Kraan-Korteweg - Tammann catalogue of nearby galaxies. I - The data
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1986A&AS...63..323H&db_key=AST

Radio continuum observations of low-surface brightness dwarf galaxies
Radio continuum measurements of 45 dwarf galaxies mostly of type Im orSm, located within 10 Mpc distance and collected at 4.75 GHz by the100-m Effelsberg telescope in November 1983 and February/March 1985, arereported. Most of the objects are seen as scaled-down versions of normalspiral galaxies with respect to radio luminosities. Measurements of thetwo brightest galaxies at 24.5 GHz gave spectral indices of -0.25 + or -0.24 for DDO52 and -0.36 + or - 0.28 for NGC4299. Comparison with bluecompact dwarf galaxies indicates a low star formation rate as expectedfrom IRAS point source catalogue data.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

Morphology of spiral galaxies. I - General properties
Red Palomar Sky Survey plates are scanned to characterize a completesample of 605 spiral galaxies north of declination -33 deg havinginclination angle less than 56 deg and blue diameter 2-15 arcmin. Theselection of the data and the reduction and parameter-extractionprocedures are explained, and the data and the results of statisticalanalysis are presented in tables and graphs. Findings reported include alow frequency of occurrence for small inclination angles (suggestingdistortion of outer structures), similar distributions of central diskbrightness for types Sa-Sc but not for types Sd-Sm (where mean valuesare smaller), fewer late-type galaxies with large exponential-disk scalelengths, no galaxies with both high central brightness and large scalelength (indicating a limit on angular momentum in galaxy formation), anda correlation between mean surface brightness and absolute magnitude forlater-type galaxies but not for types Sa-Scd.

H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:10h36m23.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.82′ × 1.38′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 3299

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR