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Metallicity, debris discs and planets
We investigate the populations of main-sequence stars within 25 pc thathave debris discs and/or giant planets detected by Doppler shift. Themetallicity distribution of the debris sample is a very close match tothat of stars in general, but differs with >99 per cent confidencefrom the giant planet sample, which favours stars of above averagemetallicity. This result is not due to differences in age of the twosamples. The formation of debris-generating planetesimals at tens of authus appears independent of the metal fraction of the primordial disc,in contrast to the growth and migration history of giant planets withina few au. The data generally fit a core accumulation model, with outerplanetesimals forming eventually even from a disc low in solids, whileinner planets require fast core growth for gas to still be present tomake an atmosphere.

Reducing the probability of capture into resonance
A migrating planet can capture planetesimals into mean motionresonances. However, resonant trapping can be prevented when the driftor migration rate is sufficiently high. Using a simple Hamiltoniansystem for first- and second-order resonances, we explore how thecapture probability depends on the order of the resonance, drift rateand initial particle eccentricity. We present scaling factors as afunction of the planet mass and resonance strength to estimate theplanetary migration rate above which the capture probability drops toless than half. Applying our framework to multiple extrasolar planetarysystems that have two planets locked in resonance, we estimate lowerlimits for the outer planet's migration rate, allowing resonance captureof the inner planet.Mean motion resonances are comprised of multiple resonant subterms. Wefind that the corotation subterm can reduce the probability of capturewhen the planet eccentricity is above a critical value. We presentfactors that can be used to estimate this critical planet eccentricity.Applying our framework to the migration of Neptune, we find thatNeptune's eccentricity is near the critical value that would make its 2: 1 resonance fail to capture twotinos. The capture probability isaffected by the separation between resonant subterms and so is also afunction of the precession rates of the longitudes of periapse of bothplanet and particle near resonance.

Planetary migration and extrasolar planets in the 2/1 mean-motion resonance
In this paper, we present a new set of corotational solutions for the2/1 commensurability, including previously known solutions and newresults. Comparisons with observed exoplanets show that current orbitalfits of three proposed resonant planetary systems are consistent withapsidal corotations.We also discuss the possible relationship between the current orbitalelements fits of known exoplanets in the 2/1 mean-motion resonance andthe expected orbital configuration due to migration. We find that, aslong as the orbital decay was sufficiently slow to be approximated by anadiabatic process, all captured planets should be in apsidalcorotations. In other words, they should show a simultaneous librationof both the resonant angle and the difference in longitudes ofpericenter.

Trojan Pairs in the HD 128311 and HD 82943 Planetary Systems?
Two nearby stars, HD 128311 and HD 82943, are believed to host pairs ofJupiter-like planets involved in a strong first-order 2:1 mean motionresonance (MMR). In this work, we reanalyze available radial velocity(RV) measurements and demonstrate that it is also possible to explainthe observed RV variations of the parent stars as being induced by apair of Trojan planets (i.e., in a 1:1 MMR). We show that these Trojanconfigurations reside in extended zones of stability in which suchsystems can easily survive in spite of the large masses of the planets,large eccentricities, and nonzero mutual inclinations of their orbits.We also show that HD 82943 could harbor a previously unknown thirdplanet of ~0.5MJ in ~2 AU orbit.

Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Orbital Configurations and Dynamical Stability of Multiplanet Systems around Sun-like Stars HD 202206, 14 Herculis, HD 37124, and HD 108874
We perform a dynamical analysis of the recently published radialvelocity (RV) measurements of a few solar-type stars that host multipleJupiter-like planets. In particular, we reanalyze the data for HD202206, 14 Her, HD 37124, and HD 108874. We derive dynamically stableconfigurations that reproduce the observed RV signals, using GAMP (thegenetic algorithm with MEGNO penalty). GAMP relies on N-body dynamicsand makes use of genetic algorithms merged with a stability criterion.For this purpose, we use the maximal Lyapunov exponent computed with thedynamical fast indicator MEGNO. Through a dynamical analysis of thephase space in a neighborhood of the obtained best-fit solutions, wederive meaningful limits on the parameters of the planets. Wedemonstrate that GAMP is especially well suited to the analysis of theRV data that only partially cover the longest orbital period and/or arerelated to multiplanet configurations involved in low-order mean motionresonances (MMRs). Our analysis reveals a presence of a secondJupiter-like planet in the 14 Her system (14 Her c) that is involved ina 3:1 or 6:1 MMR with the known companion 14 Her b. We also show thatthe dynamics of the HD 202206 system may be qualitatively different whencoplanar and mutually inclined orbits of the companions are considered.We demonstrate that the two outer planets in the HD 37124 system mayreside in a close neighborhood of the 5:2 MMR. Our results confirm thatthe HD 108874 system may be very close to a, or locked in an exact, 4:1MMR.

IRS Spectra of Solar-Type Stars: A Search for Asteroid Belt Analogs
We report the results of a spectroscopic search for debris diskssurrounding 41 nearby solar-type stars, including eight planet-bearingstars, using the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer SpaceTelescope. With the accurate relative photometry of the IRS between 7and 34 μm we are able to look for excesses as small as ~2% ofphotospheric levels, with particular sensitivity to weak spectralfeatures. For stars with no excess, the 3 σ upper limit in a bandat 30-34 μm corresponds to ~75 times the brightness of our zodiacaldust cloud. Comparable limits at 8.5-13 μm correspond to ~1400 timesthe brightness of our zodiacal dust cloud. These limits correspond tomaterial located within the <1 to ~5 AU region that, in our solarsystem, originates predominantly from debris associated with theasteroid belt. We find excess emission longward of ~25 μm from fivestars, of which four also show excess emission at 70 μm. Thisemitting dust must be located in a region starting around 5-10 AU. Onestar has 70 μm emission but no IRS excess. In this case, the emittingregion must begin outside 10 AU; this star has a known radial velocityplanet. Only two stars of the five show emission shortward of 25 μm,where spectral features reveal the presence of a population of small,hot dust grains emitting in the 7-20 μm band. One of these stars, HD72905, is quite young (300 Myr), while the other, HD 69830, is olderthan 2 Gyr. The data presented here strengthen the results of previousstudies to show that excesses at 25 μm and shorter are rare: only 1out of 40 stars older than 1 Gyr or ~2.5% shows an excess. Asteroidbelts 10-30 times more massive than our own appear are rare amongmature, solar-type stars.

Extrasolar Planetary Systems Near a Secular Separatrix
Extrasolar planetary systems display a range of behavior that can beunderstood in terms of the secular theory of classical celestialmechanics, including the motions of the major axes. Four planet pairs inthe seventeen known extrasolar planetary systems with multiple planets(υ And, 47 UMa, 55 Cnc, and HD 128311), have trajectories inorbital element space that lie close to the separatrix between librationand circulation. Here we examine the dynamics of the first two, whichare not in mean motion resonance. The basics of secular theory arereviewed in order to develop insight into this behavior. The definitionof a secular resonance is discussed, correcting misconceptions in theliterature; it is not synonymous with libration and is not acommensurability of eigenfrequencies. The behavior of these twonear-separatrix systems is evaluated with updated orbital elements bycomparing both analytical and numerical results. We find that theapsidal motion from secular theory does not match the predictions fromN-body simulations and conclude that first-order secular theory shouldbe used with caution on extrasolar planetary systems. While theexistence of one near-separatrix system could be explained simply bychance initial conditions, the fact that there are several is improbableunless some physical process tends to set up systems near theseparatrix. Explanations based on an impulsive increase in theeccentricity of one planet are promising, but key issues remain open.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1
We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star ofthe transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution KeckHIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determinedabundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting averageabundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement withinitial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare theelemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars withplanets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. Weinvestigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elementsin TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statisticallysignificant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperatureTc. We use published abundances and kinematic information forthe sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and severalstatistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms oftheir likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk ofthe Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of thethin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planethosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find thatmetal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to besystematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect tocomparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, butsystematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by differentgroups cannot be ruled out.

Spectrometric composition of nearby K dwarfs
We have obtained relatively high resolution spectra of Northernhemisphere K dwarfs. This is the first spectrometric project dedicatedonly to K dwarfs. Earlier studies have concentrated on more massive Fand G dwarfs. However, these stars have already undergone evolutionaryeffects, unlike K dwarfs, which offer more accurate information aboutthe evolution of the Solar neighbourhood. We have determined the LTEabundances of 14 elements for 42 stars with initial metallicity rangecovered by -1.52 < [Fe/H] < 0.48. We confirm the discrepancy inthe abundances derived from neutral and ionized lines. The solution tothis problem cannot just be the modification of initial physicalparameters, but requires fundamental changes in the modeling of Kdwarfs.

On the evolution of the resonant planetary system HD 128311
Context.A significant number of the known multiple exoplanetary systemscontain a pair of giant planets engaged in low-order mean-motionresonance. Such a resonant condition protects the dynamics of theseplanets resulting in very stable orbits. According to recent studies,this capture into a resonance is the result of a planetary migrationprocess induced by interaction of the planets with a protoplanetarydisk. If the migration is slow enough (adiabatic) near a mean motionresonance, the two planets will also be in apsidal corotation. Aims.The recently refined orbital parameters of the system HD 128311suggest that the two giant planets are in a 2:1 mean motion resonance,however, without exhibiting apsidal corotation. Thus the evolution ofthis system cannot be described by an adiabatic migration process alone.We present possible evolution scenarios of this system by combiningmigration processes and sudden perturbations. Methods.We modelmigration scenarios through numerical integration of the gravitationalN-body problem with additional non-conservative forces. Planet-planetscattering has been investigated by N-body simulations. Results.Weshow that the present dynamical state of the system HD 128311 may beexplained by such evolutionary processes.

Kinematic structure of the corona of the Ursa Major flow found using proper motions and radial velocities of single stars
Aims.We study the kinematic structure of peripheral areas of the UrsaMajoris stream (Sirius supercluster). Methods.We use diagrams ofindividual stellar apexes developed by us and the classical technique ofproper motion diagrams generalized to a star sample distributed over thesky. Results.Out of 128 cluster members we have identified threecorona (sub)structures comprised of 13, 13 and 8 stars. Thesubstructures have a spatial extension comparable to the size of thecorona. Kinematically, these groups are distinguished by their propermotions, radial velocities and by the directions of their spatialmotion. Coordinates of their apexes significantly differ from those ofthe apexes of the stream and its nucleus. Our analysis shows that thesesubstructures do not belong to known kinematic groups, such as Hyades orCastor. We find kinematic inhomogeneity of the corona of the UMa stream.

About putative Neptune-like extrasolar planetary candidates
Context: .We re-analyze the precision radial velocity (RV) data of HD208487 by the Anglo-Australian Planet Search Team, HD 190360, HD 188015,HD 114729 by the California and Carnegie Planet Search Team, and HD147513 by the Geneva Planet Search Team. All these stars are supposed tohost Jovian companions in long-period orbits. Aims.We test a hypothesisthat the residuals of the 1-planet model of the RV or an irregularscatter of the measurements around the synthetic RV curve may beexplained by the existence of additional planets in short-period orbits.Methods. We performed a global search for the best fits in the orbitalparameters space with genetic algorithms and simplex method. This makesit possible to verify and extend the results with an application ofcommonly used FFT-based periodogram analysis for identifying the leadingperiods. Results. Our analysis confirms the presence of a periodiccomponent in the RV of HD 190360 that may correspond to a hot-Neptuneplanet. We found four new cases in which the 2-planet model yieldssignificantly better fits to the RV data than the best 1-planetsolutions. If the periodic variability of the residuals of single-planetfits indeed has a planetary origin, then hot-Neptune planets may existin these extrasolar systems. We estimate their orbital periods as in therange of 7-20 d and minimal masses of about 20 masses of the Earth.

Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?
We present the [ X/H] trends as a function of the elemental condensationtemperature TC in 88 planet host stars and in avolume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetarycompanions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatileand refractory elements spanning a wide range of T_C, from a few dozento several hundred kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends ofplanet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars to detect evidenceof possible pollution events. No significant differences are found inthe behaviour of stars with and without planets. This is consistent witha "primordial" origin of the metal excess in planet host stars. However,a subgroup of 5 planet host and 1 comparison sample stars stands out ashaving particularly high [ X/H] vs. TC slopes.

Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.

A massive planet to the young disc star HD 81040
We report the discovery of a massive planetary companion orbiting theyoung disc star HD 81040. Based on five years of precise radial-velocitymeasurements with the HIRES and ELODIE spectrographs, we derive aspectroscopic orbit with a period P =1001.0 days and eccentricity e =0.53. The inferred minimum mass for the companion of m_2 sin i = 6.86M_Jup places it in the high-mass tail of the extrasolar planet massdistribution. From the ELODIE spectra we derive a Lithium abundance oflogɛ(Li) = 1.90, and from the HIRES spectra of the cores of theCa II H and K lines we derive an activity index of < log R'_HK> =-4.48, suggesting an age of about 0.8 Gyr. The radial-velocity residualsexhibit a scatter significantly larger than the typical internalmeasurement precision of the instruments. We attribute this excessvelocity jitter to activity on the surface of the moderately young hoststar. However, the amplitude of the jitter is much too small and theexpected period of rotation is much too short to explain the observedorbital motion, which we conclude is due to a massive planetarycompanion.

Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.

Planetary Harmony
Not Available

A link between the semimajor axis of extrasolar gas giant planets and stellar metallicity
The fact that most extrasolar planets found to date are orbitingmetal-rich stars lends credence to the core accretion mechanism of gasgiant planet formation over its competitor, the disc instabilitymechanism. However, the core accretion mechanism is not refined to thepoint of explaining orbital parameters such as the unexpected semimajoraxes and eccentricities. We propose a model that correlates themetallicity of the host star with the original semimajor axis of itsmost massive planet, prior to migration, assuming that the coreaccretion scenario governs giant gas planet formation. The modelpredicts that the optimum regions for planetary formation shift inwardsas stellar metallicity decreases, providing an explanation for theobserved absence of long-period planets in metal-poor stars. We compareour predictions with the available data on extrasolar planets for starswith masses similar to the mass of the Sun. A fitting procedure producesan estimate of what we define as the zero-age planetary orbit (ZAPO)curve as a function of the metallicity of the star. The model hints thatthe lack of planets circling metal-poor stars may be partly caused by anenhanced destruction probability during the migration process, becausethe planets lie initially closer to their central star.

Magnetospheric radio emission from extrasolar giant planets: the role of the host stars
We present a new analysis of the expected magnetospheric radio emissionfrom extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a distance limited sample ofthe nearest known extrasolar planets. Using recent results on thecorrelation between stellar X-ray flux and mass-loss rates from nearbystars, we estimate the expected mass-loss rates of the host stars ofextrasolar planets that lie within 20 pc of the Earth. We find that someof the host stars have mass-loss rates that are more than 100 times thatof the Sun and, given the expected dependence of the planetarymagnetospheric radio flux on stellar wind properties, this has a verysubstantial effect. Using these results and extrapolations of the likelymagnetic properties of the extrasolar planets, we infer their likelyradio properties.We compile a list of the most promising radio targets and conclude thatthe planets orbiting Tau Bootes, Gliese 86, Upsilon Andromeda and HD1237(as well as HD179949) are the most promising candidates, with expectedflux levels that should be detectable in the near future with upcomingtelescope arrays. The expected emission peak from these candidate radioemitting planets is typically ~40-50 MHz. We also discuss a range ofobservational considerations for detecting EGPs.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

Five New Multicomponent Planetary Systems
We report Doppler measurements for six nearby G- and K-typemain-sequence stars that show multiple low-mass companions, at least oneof which has planetary mass. One system has three planets, the fourthtriple-planet system known around a normal star, and another has anextremely low minimum mass of 18 M⊕. HD 128311 (K0 V)has two planets (one previously known) with minimum masses (Msini) of2.18MJ and 3.21MJ and orbital periods of 1.26 and2.54 yr, suggesting a possible 2:1 resonance. For HD 108874 (G5 V), thevelocities reveal two planets (one previously known) having minimummasses and periods of (Msinib=1.36MJ,Pb=1.08 yr) and (Msinic=1.02MJ,Pc=4.4 yr). HD 50499 (G1 V) has a planet with P=6.8 yr andMsini=1.7MJ, and the velocity residuals exhibit a trend of-4.8 m s-1 yr-1, indicating a more distantcompanion with P>10 yr and minimum mass of 2MJ. HD 37124(G4 IV-V) has three planets, one having Msini=0.61MJ andP=154.5 days, as previously known. We find two plausible triple-planetmodels that fit the data, both having a second planet near P=840 days,with the more likely model having its third planet in a 6 yr orbit andthe other one in a 29 day orbit. For HD 190360, we confirm the planethaving P=7.9 yr and Msini=1.5MJ as found by the Geneva team,but we find a distinctly noncircular orbit with e=0.36+/-0.03, renderingthis not an analog of Jupiter as had been reported. Our velocities alsoreveal a second planet with P=17.1 days and Msini=18.1M⊕. HD 217107 (G8 IV) has a previously known ``hotJupiter'' with Msini=1.4MJ and P=7.13 days, and we confirmits high eccentricity, e=0.13. The velocity residuals reveal an outercompanion in an eccentric orbit, having minimum mass ofMsini>2MJ, eccentricity e~0.5, and a period P>8 yr,implying a semimajor axis a>4 AU and providing an opportunity fordirect detection. We have obtained high-precision photometry of five ofthe six planetary host stars with three of the automated telescopes atFairborn Observatory. We can rule out significant brightness variationsin phase with the radial velocities in most cases, thus supportingplanetary reflex motion as the cause of the velocity variations.Transits are ruled out to very shallow limits for HD 217107 and are alsoshown to be unlikely for the prospective inner planets of the HD 37124and HD 108874 systems. HD 128311 is photometrically variable with anamplitude of 0.03 mag and a period of 11.53 days, which is much shorterthan the orbital periods of its two planetary companions. This rotationperiod explains the origin of periodic velocity residuals to thetwo-planet model of this star. All of the planetary systems here wouldbe further constrained with astrometry by the Space InterferometryMission.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and theUniversity of California.

Planets and Infrared Excesses: Preliminary Results from a Spitzer MIPS Survey of Solar-Type Stars
As part of a large Spitzer MIPS Guaranteed Time Observation program, wehave searched for infrared excesses due to debris disks toward 26 FGKfield stars known from radial velocity (RV) studies to have one or moreplanets. While none of these stars show excesses at 24 μm, we havedetected 70 μm excesses around six stars at the 3 σ confidencelevel. The excesses are produced by cool material (<100 K) locatedbeyond 10 AU, well outside the ``habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Theseplanet-bearing stars are, by selection for RV studies, typically olderthan 1 Gyr, and the stars identified here with excesses have a medianage of 4 Gyr. We find a preliminary correlation of both the frequencyand the magnitude of dust emission with the presence of known planets.These are the first stars outside the solar system identified as havingboth well-confirmed planetary systems and well-confirmed IR excesses.

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation
We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories.

Prospects for Habitable ``Earths'' in Known Exoplanetary Systems
We have examined whether putative Earth-mass planets could remainconfined to the habitable zones (HZs) of the 111 exoplanetary systemsconfirmed by 2004 August. We find that in about half of these systemsthere could be confinement for at least the past 1000 Myr, though insome cases only in variously restricted regions of the HZ. The HZmigrates outward during the main-sequence lifetime, and we find that inabout two-thirds of the systems an Earth-mass planet could be confinedto the HZ for at least 1000 Myr sometime during the main-sequencelifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list forexploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached our conclusions bydetailed investigations of seven systems, which has resulted in anestimate of the distance from the giant planet within which orbitalstability is unlikely for an Earth-mass planet. This distance is givenby nRH, where RH is the Hill radius of the giantplanet and n is a multiplier that depends on the giant's orbitaleccentricity and on whether the Earth-mass planet is interior orexterior to the giant planet. We have estimated n for each of the sevensystems by launching Earth-mass planets in various orbits and followingtheir fate with a hybrid orbital integrator. We have then evaluated thehabitability of the other exoplanetary systems using nRHderived from the giant's orbital eccentricity without carrying outtime-consuming orbital integrations. A stellar evolution model has beenused to obtain the HZs throughout the main-sequence lifetime.

On the ages of exoplanet host stars
We obtained spectra, covering the CaII H and K region, for 49 exoplanethost (EH) stars, observable from the southern hemisphere. We measuredthe chromospheric activity index, R'{_HK}. We compiled previouslypublished values of this index for the observed objects as well as theremaining EH stars in an effort to better smooth temporal variations andderive a more representative value of the average chromospheric activityfor each object. We used the average index to obtain ages for the groupof EH stars. In addition we applied other methods, such as: Isochrone,lithium abundance, metallicity and transverse velocity dispersions, tocompare with the chromospheric results. The kinematic method is a lessreliable age estimator because EH stars lie red-ward of Parenago'sdiscontinuity in the transverse velocity dispersion vs dereddened B-Vdiagram. The chromospheric and isochrone techniques give median ages of5.2 and 7.4 Gyr, respectively, with a dispersion of 4 Gyr. The medianage of F and G EH stars derived by the isochrone technique is 1-2 Gyrolder than that of identical spectral type nearby stars not known to beassociated with planets. However, the dispersion in both cases is large,about 2-4 Gyr. We searched for correlations between the chromosphericand isochrone ages and L_IR/L* (the excess over the stellarluminosity) and the metallicity of the EH stars. No clear tendency isfound in the first case, whereas the metallicy dispersion seems toslightly increase with age.

Abundances of Na, Mg and Al in stars with giant planets
We present Na, Mg and Al abundances in a set of 98 stars with knowngiant planets, and in a comparison sample of 41 “single”stars. The results show that the [X/H] abundances (with X = Na, Mg andAl) are, on average, higher in stars with giant planets, a resultsimilar to the one found for iron. However, we did not find any strongdifference in the [X/Fe] ratios, for a fixed [Fe/H], between the twosamples of stars in the region where the samples overlap. The data wasused to study the Galactic chemical evolution trends for Na, Mg and Aland to discuss the possible influence of planets on this evolution. Theresults, similar to those obtained by other authors, show that the[X/Fe] ratios all decrease as a function of metallicity up to solarvalues. While for Mg and Al this trend then becomes relatively constant,for Na we find indications of an upturn up to [Fe/H] values close to0.25 dex. For metallicities above this value the [Na/Fe] becomesconstant.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:14h36m00.56s
Apparent magnitude:7.493
Distance:16.57 parsecs
Proper motion RA:204.5
Proper motion Dec:-250.1
B-T magnitude:8.744
V-T magnitude:7.597

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 128311
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 910-165-1
HIPHIP 71395

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