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An integral-field spectrograph for the terrestrial planet finder coronograph.
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Metallicity, debris discs and planets
We investigate the populations of main-sequence stars within 25 pc thathave debris discs and/or giant planets detected by Doppler shift. Themetallicity distribution of the debris sample is a very close match tothat of stars in general, but differs with >99 per cent confidencefrom the giant planet sample, which favours stars of above averagemetallicity. This result is not due to differences in age of the twosamples. The formation of debris-generating planetesimals at tens of authus appears independent of the metal fraction of the primordial disc,in contrast to the growth and migration history of giant planets withina few au. The data generally fit a core accumulation model, with outerplanetesimals forming eventually even from a disc low in solids, whileinner planets require fast core growth for gas to still be present tomake an atmosphere.

Planetary migration and extrasolar planets in the 2/1 mean-motion resonance
In this paper, we present a new set of corotational solutions for the2/1 commensurability, including previously known solutions and newresults. Comparisons with observed exoplanets show that current orbitalfits of three proposed resonant planetary systems are consistent withapsidal corotations.We also discuss the possible relationship between the current orbitalelements fits of known exoplanets in the 2/1 mean-motion resonance andthe expected orbital configuration due to migration. We find that, aslong as the orbital decay was sufficiently slow to be approximated by anadiabatic process, all captured planets should be in apsidalcorotations. In other words, they should show a simultaneous librationof both the resonant angle and the difference in longitudes ofpericenter.

Stability and 2:1 resonance in the planetary system HD 829431
We have explored the secular dynamical evolution of the HD 82943 systemwith two resonant giant planets, by simulating various planetaryconfigurations via direct numerical integration. We also studied theirorbital motions in phase space. In the numerical integrations over107 yr, we found that all the stable orbits are connectedwith the 2:1 resonance. Typically, there exists the libration of the tworesonant arguments 1 and (or) 2 on the sametimescale. Hence, both of the semi-major axes are strongly constrainedto behave in a regular way, due to the confinement of the libration ofthe related angles. Using the analytical model we considered the motionof the inner planet in phase space for different values of the outerplanet's eccentricity e2 and of the relative apsidallongitude . We found that the 2:1 orbital resonance is easily preservedwhen= 0† and when e2 is not too large. A moderatee2 can lock the two planets into deep resonance. The resultsby the analytical method agree well with those by the numericalsimulation, both revealing the 2:1 resonance architecture.

Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

IRS Spectra of Solar-Type Stars: A Search for Asteroid Belt Analogs
We report the results of a spectroscopic search for debris diskssurrounding 41 nearby solar-type stars, including eight planet-bearingstars, using the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer SpaceTelescope. With the accurate relative photometry of the IRS between 7and 34 μm we are able to look for excesses as small as ~2% ofphotospheric levels, with particular sensitivity to weak spectralfeatures. For stars with no excess, the 3 σ upper limit in a bandat 30-34 μm corresponds to ~75 times the brightness of our zodiacaldust cloud. Comparable limits at 8.5-13 μm correspond to ~1400 timesthe brightness of our zodiacal dust cloud. These limits correspond tomaterial located within the <1 to ~5 AU region that, in our solarsystem, originates predominantly from debris associated with theasteroid belt. We find excess emission longward of ~25 μm from fivestars, of which four also show excess emission at 70 μm. Thisemitting dust must be located in a region starting around 5-10 AU. Onestar has 70 μm emission but no IRS excess. In this case, the emittingregion must begin outside 10 AU; this star has a known radial velocityplanet. Only two stars of the five show emission shortward of 25 μm,where spectral features reveal the presence of a population of small,hot dust grains emitting in the 7-20 μm band. One of these stars, HD72905, is quite young (300 Myr), while the other, HD 69830, is olderthan 2 Gyr. The data presented here strengthen the results of previousstudies to show that excesses at 25 μm and shorter are rare: only 1out of 40 stars older than 1 Gyr or ~2.5% shows an excess. Asteroidbelts 10-30 times more massive than our own appear are rare amongmature, solar-type stars.

Extrasolar Planetary Systems Near a Secular Separatrix
Extrasolar planetary systems display a range of behavior that can beunderstood in terms of the secular theory of classical celestialmechanics, including the motions of the major axes. Four planet pairs inthe seventeen known extrasolar planetary systems with multiple planets(υ And, 47 UMa, 55 Cnc, and HD 128311), have trajectories inorbital element space that lie close to the separatrix between librationand circulation. Here we examine the dynamics of the first two, whichare not in mean motion resonance. The basics of secular theory arereviewed in order to develop insight into this behavior. The definitionof a secular resonance is discussed, correcting misconceptions in theliterature; it is not synonymous with libration and is not acommensurability of eigenfrequencies. The behavior of these twonear-separatrix systems is evaluated with updated orbital elements bycomparing both analytical and numerical results. We find that theapsidal motion from secular theory does not match the predictions fromN-body simulations and conclude that first-order secular theory shouldbe used with caution on extrasolar planetary systems. While theexistence of one near-separatrix system could be explained simply bychance initial conditions, the fact that there are several is improbableunless some physical process tends to set up systems near theseparatrix. Explanations based on an impulsive increase in theeccentricity of one planet are promising, but key issues remain open.

Frequency of Debris Disks around Solar-Type Stars: First Results from a Spitzer MIPS Survey
We have searched for infrared excesses around a well-defined sample of69 FGK main-sequence field stars. These stars were selected withoutregard to their age, metallicity, or any previous detection of IRexcess; they have a median age of ~4 Gyr. We have detected 70 μmexcesses around seven stars at the 3 σ confidence level. Thisextra emission is produced by cool material (<100 K) located beyond10 AU, well outside the ``habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Only one star,HD 69830, shows excess emission at 24 μm, corresponding to dust withtemperatures >~300 K located inside of 1 AU. While debris disks withLdust/L*>=10-3 are rare around oldFGK stars, we find that the disk frequency increases from 2%+/-2% forLdust/L*>=10-4 to 12%+/-5% forLdust/L*>=10-5. This trend in thedisk luminosity distribution is consistent with the estimated dust inour solar system being within an order of magnitude greater or less thanthe typical level around similar nearby stars. Although there is nocorrelation of IR excess with metallicity or spectral type, there is aweak correlation with stellar age, with stars younger than a gigayearmore likely to have excess emission.

A search for wide visual companions of exoplanet host stars: The Calar Alto Survey
We have carried out a search for co-moving stellar and substellarcompanions around 18 exoplanet host stars with the infrared camera MAGICat the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope, by comparing our images with imagesfrom the all sky surveys 2MASS, POSS I and II. Four stars of the samplenamely HD 80606, 55 Cnc, HD 46375 and BD-10°3166, arelisted as binaries in the Washington Visual Double Star Catalogue (WDS).The binary nature of HD 80606, 55 Cnc, and HD 46375 is confirmed withboth astrometry as well as photometry, thereby the proper motion of thecompanion of HD 46375 was determined here for the first time. We derivedthe companion masses as well as the longterm stability regions foradditional companions in these three binary systems. We can rule outfurther stellar companions around all stars in the sample with projectedseparations between 270 AU and 2500 AU, being sensitive to substellarcompanions with masses down to ˜ 60 {MJup} (S/N=3).Furthermore we present evidence that the two components of the WDSbinary BD-10°3166 are unrelated stars, i.e this system isa visual pair. The spectrophotometric distance of the primary (a K0dwarf) is ˜ 67 pc, whereas the presumable secondaryBD-10°3166 B (a M4 to M5 dwarf) is located at a distanceof 13 pc in the foreground.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1
We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star ofthe transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution KeckHIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determinedabundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting averageabundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement withinitial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare theelemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars withplanets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. Weinvestigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elementsin TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statisticallysignificant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperatureTc. We use published abundances and kinematic information forthe sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and severalstatistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms oftheir likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk ofthe Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of thethin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planethosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find thatmetal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to besystematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect tocomparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, butsystematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by differentgroups cannot be ruled out.

A Comparative Study on Lithium Abundances in Solar-Type Stars With and Without Planets
We have investigated the abundance anomalies of lithium for stars withplanets in the temperature range of 5600-5900 K reported by Israelianand coworkers, as compared to 20 normal stars in the same temperatureand metallicity ranges. Our result indicates a higher probability oflithium depletion for stars with planets in the main-sequence stage. Itseems that stellar photospheric abundances of lithium in stars withplanets may be somewhat affected by the presence of planets. Twopossible mechanisms are considered to account for the lower Liabundances of stars with planets. One is related to the rotation-inducedmixing due to the conservation of angular momentum by the protoplanetarydisk, and the other is a shear instability triggered by planetmigration. These results provide new information on stellar evolutionand the lithium evolution of the Galaxy.

Gravitational scattering by giant planets
We seek to characterize giant-planet systems by their gravitationalscattering properties. We do this to a given system by integrating itnumerically along with a large number of hypothetical small bodies thatare initially in eccentric habitable zone (HZ)-crossing orbits. Ouranalysis produces a single number, the escape rate, which represents therate at which the small-body flux is perturbed away by the giant planetsinto orbits that no longer pose a threat to terrestrial planets insidethe HZ. Obtaining the escape rate this way is similar to computing thelargest Liapunov exponent as the exponential rate of divergence of twonearby orbits. For a terrestrial planet inside the HZ, the escape ratevalue quantifies the "protective" effect that the studied giant-planetsystem offers. Therefore, escape rates could provide information onwhether certain giant-planet configurations produce a more desirableenvironment for life than the others. We present some computed escaperates on selected planetary systems, focusing on effects of varying themasses and semi-major axes of the giant planets. In the case of ourSolar System we find rather surprisingly that Jupiter, in its currentorbit, may provide a minimal amount of protection to the Earth.

Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.

Hipparcos astrometric orbits for two brown dwarf companions: HD 38529 and HD 168443
Context: .HD 38529 and HD 168443 have previously been identified assystems with two substellar companion candidates using precise radialvelocity measurements.Aims.We want to further constrain their orbits andthe nature of the outer companions.Methods.We fit astrometric orbits ofthe outer substellar companions in the two systems to the HipparcosIntermediate Astrometric Data.Results.The fit constrains all possiblesolutions to a small region in the parameter space of the two missingorbital parameters (inclination i and ascending node Ω). This canbe interpreted as a possible real detection of the astrometricsignatures of the companions in the Hipparcos data, although there isstill a 14-18% chance that the signal is not detectable in the data,according to an F-test. However, even in the case of a non-detection ofthe companion signal in the astrometric data, the knowledge of thespectroscopic orbital parameters enables us to place tight constraintson these two missing parameters, so that the astrometric orbit is fullydetermined (with confidence levels of around 80% for HD 38529, 95% forHD 168443). Inclinations derived from these astrometric fits enable usto calculate masses for the substellar companions rather than lower orupper limits. The best fit solution for HD 38529, (i, Ω) =(160°, 52°), yields a mass of 37+36-19M_Jup for the outer companion. For HD 168443, we derive best fitparameters of (i, Ω) = (150°, 19°), which imply acompanion mass of 34± 12 M_Jup.Conclusions.The outer companionsin both systems are thus brown dwarfs.

Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.

Astrometric Methods and Instrumentation to Identify and Characterize Extrasolar Planets: A Review
I present a review of astrometric techniques and instrumentation used tosearch for, detect, and characterize extrasolar planets. First, Ibriefly summarize the properties of the current sample of extrasolarplanets, in connection with predictions from theoretical models ofplanet formation and evolution. Next, the generic approach to planetdetection with astrometry is described, with significant discussion of avariety of technical, statistical, and astrophysical issues to be facedby future ground-based and space-borne efforts in order to achieve therequired degree of measurement precision. After a brief summary of pastand present efforts to detect planets via milliarcsecond astrometry, Ithen discuss the planet-finding capabilities of future astrometricobservatories aiming at microarcsecond precision. Finally, I outline anumber of experiments that can be conducted by means of high-precisionastrometry during the next decade, to illustrate its potential forimportant contributions to planetary science, compared to other indirectand direct methods for the detection and characterization of planetarysystems.

Photospheric CNO Abundances of Solar-Type Stars
We determined the C, N, and O abundances of 160 nearby F, G, and Kdwarfs and subgiants by using spectra obtained with the HIDESspectrograph at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, with the purposes of(1) establishing the runs of [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [O/Fe] for thesegalactic disk stars in the metallicity range of -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲+0.4, (2) searching for any difference in the CNO abundances ofplanet-host stars as compared to non-planet-host stars, and (3)examining the consistency of the abundances derived from different linesto check the validity of the analysis. The non-LTE effect on theabundance determination was taken into consideration based on ourextensive statistical-equilibrium calculations. We confirmed thatconsistent abundances are mostly accomplished between different lines,and that [C/Fe] as well as [O/Fe] progressively increase with a decreasein [Fe/H] with the slope of the former (˜ 0.2‑0.3) beingshallower than the latter (˜ 0.4‑0.5), while [N/Fe] does notshow any clear systematic trend with the metallicity. The [C/Fe],[N/Fe], and [O/Fe] values of 27 planet-harboring stars (included in oursample of 160 stars) were shown to be practically indistinguishable fromthose exhibited by non-planet-harboring stars of similar metallicities.

Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.

Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.

A link between the semimajor axis of extrasolar gas giant planets and stellar metallicity
The fact that most extrasolar planets found to date are orbitingmetal-rich stars lends credence to the core accretion mechanism of gasgiant planet formation over its competitor, the disc instabilitymechanism. However, the core accretion mechanism is not refined to thepoint of explaining orbital parameters such as the unexpected semimajoraxes and eccentricities. We propose a model that correlates themetallicity of the host star with the original semimajor axis of itsmost massive planet, prior to migration, assuming that the coreaccretion scenario governs giant gas planet formation. The modelpredicts that the optimum regions for planetary formation shift inwardsas stellar metallicity decreases, providing an explanation for theobserved absence of long-period planets in metal-poor stars. We compareour predictions with the available data on extrasolar planets for starswith masses similar to the mass of the Sun. A fitting procedure producesan estimate of what we define as the zero-age planetary orbit (ZAPO)curve as a function of the metallicity of the star. The model hints thatthe lack of planets circling metal-poor stars may be partly caused by anenhanced destruction probability during the migration process, becausethe planets lie initially closer to their central star.

The stability of the terrestrial planets with a more massive `Earth'
Although the long-term numerical integrations of planetary orbitsindicate that our planetary system is dynamically stable at least +/-4Gyr, the dynamics of our Solar system includes both chaotic and stablemotions: the large planets exhibit remarkable stability on gigayeartime-scales, while the subsystem of the terrestrial planets is weaklychaotic with a maximum Lyapunov exponent reaching the value of 1/5Myr-1. In this paper the dynamics of theSun-Venus-Earth-Mars-Jupiter-Saturn model is studied, where the mass ofEarth was magnified via a mass factor κE. The resultingsystems dominated by a massive Earth may serve also as models forexoplanetary systems that are similar to ours. This work is acontinuation of our previous study, where the same model was used andthe masses of the inner planets were uniformly magnified. That model wasfound to be substantially stable against the mass growth. Oursimulations were undertaken for more than 100 different values ofκE for a time of 20 Myr, and in some cases for 100 Myr.A major result was the appearance of an instability window atκE~ 5, where Mars escaped. This new result hasimportant implications for theories of the planetary system formationprocess and mechanism. It is shown that with increasingκE the system splits into two, well-separatedsubsystems: one consists of the inner planets, and the other consists ofthe outer planets. According to the results, the model becomes morestable as κE increases and only whenκE>= 540 does Mars escape, on a Myr time-scale. Wefound an interesting protection mechanism for Venus. These results giveinsights also into the stability of the habitable zone of exoplanetarysystems, which harbour planets with relatively small eccentricities andinclinations.

Magnetospheric radio emission from extrasolar giant planets: the role of the host stars
We present a new analysis of the expected magnetospheric radio emissionfrom extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a distance limited sample ofthe nearest known extrasolar planets. Using recent results on thecorrelation between stellar X-ray flux and mass-loss rates from nearbystars, we estimate the expected mass-loss rates of the host stars ofextrasolar planets that lie within 20 pc of the Earth. We find that someof the host stars have mass-loss rates that are more than 100 times thatof the Sun and, given the expected dependence of the planetarymagnetospheric radio flux on stellar wind properties, this has a verysubstantial effect. Using these results and extrapolations of the likelymagnetic properties of the extrasolar planets, we infer their likelyradio properties.We compile a list of the most promising radio targets and conclude thatthe planets orbiting Tau Bootes, Gliese 86, Upsilon Andromeda and HD1237(as well as HD179949) are the most promising candidates, with expectedflux levels that should be detectable in the near future with upcomingtelescope arrays. The expected emission peak from these candidate radioemitting planets is typically ~40-50 MHz. We also discuss a range ofobservational considerations for detecting EGPs.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

Could the 47 Ursae Majoris Planetary System be a Second Solar System? Predicting the Earth-like Planets
We numerically investigated the dynamical architecture of 47 UMa withthe planetary configuration of the best-fit orbital solutions by Fischerand coworkers. We systematically studied the existence of Earth-likeplanets in the region 0.05 AU<=a<=2.0 AU for 47 UMa with numericalsimulations and also explored the packed planetary geometry and Trojanplanets in the system. In the simulations, we found that ``hot Earths''at 0.05 AU<=a<0.4 AU can dynamically survive for at least 1 Myr.The Earth-like planets can eventually remain in the system for 10 Myr inareas involved in mean motion resonances (MMRs; e.g., 3:2 MMR) with theinner companion. Moreover, we showed that the 2:1 and 3:1 resonances areon the fringe of stability, while the 5:2 MMR is unstable. In addition,the 2:1 MMR marks out a remarkable boundary between chaotic and regularmotions: inside, most of the orbits can survive, but outside, they aremostly lost in the orbital evolution. In a dynamical sense, the mostlikely candidates for habitable environments are Earth-like planets withorbits in the ranges 0.8 AU<=a<1.0 AU and 1.0 AU

The Dynamics of the HD 12661 Extrasolar Planetary System
The main goal of this work is to analyze the possible dynamicalmechanisms that dominate the motion of the HD 12661 extrasolar planetarysystem. By an analytical approach using the expansion of the disturbingfunction given by Ellis and Murray, we solve the equation of motionworking in a Hamiltonian formulation with the corresponding canonicalvariables and by means of appropriate canonical transformations.Comparing these results with a direct numerical integration, we canconclude that the system is dominated by a pure secular evolution thatis very well reproduced with a disturbing function including at leastsixth-order terms in the eccentricities. Because of the uncertainties inthe orbital elements of the planets, we also contemplate the occurrenceof mean motion resonances in the system and analyze possiblecontribution from these resonant terms to the total motion.

The Effective Temperature Scale of FGK Stars. II. Teff:Color:[Fe/H] Calibrations
We present up-to-date metallicity-dependent temperature versus colorcalibrations for main-sequence and giant stars based on temperaturesderived with the infrared flux method (IRFM). Seventeen colors in thephotometric systems UBV, uvby, Vilnius, Geneva, RI(Cousins), DDO,Hipparcos-Tycho, and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) have beencalibrated. The spectral types covered by the calibrations range from F0to K5 (7000K>~Teff>~4000K) with some relationsextending below 4000 K or up to 8000 K. Most of the calibrations arevalid in the metallicity range -3.5>~[Fe/H]>~0.4, although some ofthem extend to as low as [Fe/H]~-4.0. All fits to the data have beenperformed with more than 100 stars; standard deviations range from 30 to120 K. Fits were carefully performed and corrected to eliminate thesmall systematic errors introduced by the calibration formulae. Tablesof colors as a function of Teff and [Fe/H] are provided. Thiswork is largely based on the study by A. Alonso and collaborators; thus,our relations do not significantly differ from theirs except for thevery metal-poor hot stars. From the calibrations, the temperatures of 44dwarf and giant stars with direct temperatures available are obtained.The comparison with direct temperatures confirms our finding in Paper Ithat the zero point of the IRFM temperature scale is in agreement, tothe 10 K level, with the absolute temperature scale (that based onstellar angular diameters) within the ranges of atmospheric parameterscovered by those 44 stars. The colors of the Sun are derived from thepresent IRFM Teff scale and they compare well with those offive solar analogs. It is shown that if the IRFM Teff scaleaccurately reproduces the temperatures of very metal-poor stars,systematic errors of the order of 200 K, introduced by the assumption of(V-K) being completely metallicity independent when studying verymetal-poor dwarf stars, are no longer acceptable. Comparisons with otherTeff scales, both empirical and theoretical, are also shownto be in reasonable agreement with our results, although it seems thatboth Kurucz and MARCS synthetic colors fail to predict the detailedmetallicity dependence, given that for [Fe/H]=-2.0, differences as highas approximately +/-200 K are found.

Single-Visit Photometric and Obscurational Completeness
We report a method that uses ``completeness'' to estimate the number ofextrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with adirect-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function forEarth-like planets on ``habitable'' orbits for an instrument with acentral field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detectionzone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a ``deltamagnitude'' with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects(given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimationby applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of theTerrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of 2004 October. Weestablish an initial relationship between the size, quality, andstability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet missionscience requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity andversatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discusshow the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a wholeto verify that its design can meet the science requirements.

Three Low-Mass Planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search
We report the detection of three new low-mass planets from theAnglo-Australian Planet Search. The three parent stars of these planetsare chromospherically quiet main-sequence G dwarfs with metallicitiesranging from roughly solar (HD 117618 and HD 208487) to metal enriched(HD 102117). The orbital periods range from 20.8 to 130 days, theminimum masses from roughly 0.5MSat to 0.5MJup,and the eccentricities from 0.08 to 0.37, with the planet in thesmallest orbit (HD 102117) having the smallest eccentricity. Withsemiamplitudes of 10.6-19 m s-1, these planets induce Doppleramplitudes similar to those of Jupiter analogs, albeit with shorterperiods. Many of the most interesting future Doppler planets will bedetected at these semiamplitude levels, placing a premium on measurementprecision. The detection of such amplitudes in data extending back 6 yrgives confidence in the Anglo-Australian Planet Search's ability todetect Jupiter analogs as our time baseline extends to 12 yr. We discussthe criticality of such detections for the design of the next generationof extremely large telescopes and also highlight prospects for suitableobserving strategies to push to below 1 m s-1 precisions forbright stars in a search for sub-Neptunian planets.Based on observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope, SidingSpring, Australia.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:10h59m28.00s
Apparent magnitude:5.05
Distance:14.077 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-317.2
Proper motion Dec:56.6
B-T magnitude:5.78
V-T magnitude:5.102

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesChalawan
Flamsteed47 UMa
HD 1989HD 95128
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3009-2703-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-07832846
BSC 1991HR 4277
HIPHIP 53721

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