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Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).

Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive.

The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ˜14 000 F and G dwarfs
We present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our˜63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the ``G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989

The tidal effects on the lithium abundance of binary systems with giant component
We analyse the behavior of lithium abundance as a function of effectivetemperature, projected rotational velocity, orbital period andeccentricity for a sample of 68 binary systems with giant component andorbital period ranging from about 10 to 6400 days. For these binarysystems the Li abundances show a gradual decrease with temperature,paralleling the well established result for single giants. We have alsoobserved a dependence of lithium content on rotation. Binary systemswith moderate to high rotation present also moderate to high Li content.This study shows also that synchronized binary systems with giantcomponent seem to retain more of their original lithium than theunsynchronized systems. For orbital periods lower than 100 to 250 days,typically the period of synchronization for this kind of binary systems,lithium depleted stars seems to be unusual. The suggestion is made thatthere is an ``inhibited zone" in which synchronized binary systems withgiant component having lithium abundance lower than a threshold levelshould be unusual. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla.

The Coudé Echelle Spectrograph for the Xinglong 2.16 Telescope
A brief description of the NAO coudé echelle spectrograph mountedon the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station is given. This echellespectrograph is located at the coudé focus with a prism crossdisperser. The echelle image covers the spectral region from 330 to 1100nm displayed in 80 spectral orders in one exposure through two lightbeams. With a slit height of 2 mm, spectral orders are separated by 15to 23 pixels in blue region and by 7 to 19 pixels in red region.Alternatively, two additional resolution modes corresponding todifferent focal length cameras with resolving power R =16 000, 170 000in the blue beam and R = 13 000, 170 000 in the red beam could beprovided by this spectrograph. The bias, dark, wavelength calibration,flat field and science exposure are described in details. The limitingmagnitude for 1 hour exposure with an S/N ratio of 100 scales to V = 9.5in the red path and to V = 7.2 in the blue path.

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem Hipparcos Binaries. II. Observations Obtained in 1998-1999 from McDonald Observatory
The Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 9734 known doublestars, 3406 new double stars, and 11,687 unresolved but possible doublestars. The high angular resolution afforded by speckle interferometrymakes it an efficient means to confirm these systems from the ground,which were first discovered from space. Because of its coverage of adifferent region of angular separation-magnitude difference(ρ-Δm) space, speckle interferometry also holds promise toascertain the duplicity of the unresolved Hipparcos ``problem'' stars.Presented are observations of 116 new Hipparcos double stars and 469Hipparcos ``problem stars,'' as well as 238 measures of other doublestars and 246 other high-quality nondetections. Included in these areobservations of double stars listed in the Tycho-2 Catalogue andpossible grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission.

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS Binaries
The ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged ``G,''``O,'' ``V,'' or ``X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as ``suspected nonsingle'' (flag ``S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 ``problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras.

New CORAVEL spectroscopic-binary orbits of giant barium stars. II
This paper complements the set of spectroscopic orbits for giant bariumstars given in \cite[Udry et al. (1998)]{udry98} and provides data for20 binaries (18 orbits + 2 minimum-period determinations). Based onobservations obtained at the Haute-Provence Observatory (France) and atthe European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile).

A CORAVEL radial-velocity monitoring of giant BA and S stars: Spectroscopic orbits and intrinsic variations. I.
With the aim of deriving the binary frequency among Ba and S stars, 56new spectroscopic orbits (46 and 10, respectively) have been derived forthese chemically-peculiar red giants monitored with the \coravel\spectrometers. These orbits are presented in this paper (38 orbits) andin a companion paper \cite[(Udry et al. 1998,]{Udry} Paper II; 18orbits). The results for 12 additional long-period binary stars (6 and6, respectively), for which only minimum periods (generally exceeding 10y) can be derived, are also presented here (10) and in Paper II (2). Theglobal analysis of this material, with a few supplementary orbits fromthe literature, is presented in \cite[Jorissen et al.(1998).]{Jorissen98} For the subsample of Mira S, SC and (Tc-poor) Cstars showing intrinsic radial-velocity variations due to atmosphericphenomena, orbital solutions (when available) have been retained if thevelocity and photometric periods are different (3 stars). However, it isemphasized that these orbit determinations are still tentative. Threestars have been found with radial-velocity variations synchronous withthe light variations. Pseudo-orbital solutions have been derived forthose stars. In the case of RZ Peg, a line-doubling phenomenon isobserved near maximum light, and probably reflects the shock wavepropagating through the photosphere. Based on observations obtained atthe Haute-Provence Observatory (France) and at the European SouthernObservatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile).

Insights into the formation of barium and Tc-poor S stars from an extended sample of orbital elements
The set of orbital elements available for chemically-peculiar red giant(PRG) stars has been considerably enlarged thanks to a decade-longCORAVEL radial-velocity monitoring of about 70 barium stars and 50 Sstars. When account is made for the detection biases, the observedbinary frequency among strong barium stars, mild barium stars andTc-poor S stars (respectively 35/37, 34/40 and 24/28) is compatible withthe hypothesis that they are all members of binary systems. Thesimilarity between the orbital-period, eccentricity and mass-functiondistributions of Tc-poor S stars and barium stars confirms that Tc-poorS stars are the cooler analogs of barium stars. A comparative analysisof the orbital elements of the various families of PRG stars, and of asample of chemically-normal, binary giants in open clusters, revealsseveral interesting features. The eccentricity - period diagram of PRGstars clearly bears the signature of dissipative processes associatedwith mass transfer, since the maximum eccentricity observed at a givenorbital period is much smaller than in the comparison sample of normalgiants. be held The mass function distribution is compatible with theunseen companion being a white dwarf (WD). This lends support to thescenario of formation of the PRG star by accretion of heavy-element-richmatter transferred from the former asymptotic giant branch progenitor ofthe current WD. Assuming that the WD companion has a mass in the range0.60+/-0.04 Msb ȯ, the masses of mild and strong barium starsamount to 1.9+/-0.2 and 1.5+/-0.2 Msb ȯ, respectively. Mild bariumstars are not restricted to long-period systems, contrarily to what isexpected if the smaller accretion efficiency in wider systems were thedominant factor controlling the pollution level of the PRG star. Theseresults suggest that the difference between mild and strong barium starsis mainly one of galactic population rather than of orbital separation,in agreement with their respective kinematical properties. There areindications that metallicity may be the parameter blurring the period -Ba-anomaly correlation: at a given orbital period, increasing levels ofheavy-element overabundances are found in mild barium stars, strongbarium stars, and Pop.II CH stars, corresponding to a sequence ofincreasingly older, i.e., more metal-deficient, populations. PRG starsthus seem to be produced more efficiently in low-metallicitypopulations. Conversely, normal giants in barium-like binary systems mayexist in more metal-rich populations. HD 160538 (DR Dra) may be such anexample, and its very existence indicates at least that binarity is nota sufficient condition to produce a PRG star. This paper is dedicated tothe memory of Antoine Duquennoy, who contributed many among theobservations used in this study

Barium stars, galactic populations and evolution.
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematical data together withradial velocities from other sources are used to calibrate bothluminosity and kinematics parameters of Ba stars and to classify them.We confirm the results of our previous paper (where we used data fromthe HIPPARCOS Input Catalogue), and show that Ba stars are aninhomogeneous group. Five distinct classes have been found i.e. somehalo stars and four groups belonging to disk population: roughlysuper-giants, two groups of giants (one on the giant branch, the otherat the clump location) and dwarfs, with a few subgiants mixed with them.The confirmed or suspected duplicity, the variability and the range ofknown orbital periods found in each group give coherent resultssupporting the scenario for Ba stars that are not too highly massivebinary stars in any evolutionary stages but that all were previouslyenriched with Ba from a more evolved companion. The presence in thesample of a certain number of ``false'' Ba stars is confirmed. Theestimates of age and mass are compatible with models for stars with astrong Ba anomaly. The mild Ba stars with an estimated mass higher than3Msun_ may be either stars Ba enriched by themselves or``true'' Ba stars, which imposes new constraints on models.

Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.
The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained fromkinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihoodprinciple. The method allows to separate a sample into groupscharacterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics andz-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, thecensorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The methodhas been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have beendetected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding todisk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halokinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread alarge range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag,σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing bariumbinaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the redgiant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group containsbarium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic ofstars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag,σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as thekinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link betweenbarium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group isnot linked with these last two groups. More high-resolutionspectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminatebetween barium and non-barium stars.

Classification of Population II Stars in the Vilnius Photometric System. I. Methods
The methods used for classification of Population II stars in theVilnius photometric system are described. An extensive set of standardswith known astrophysical parameters compiled from the literature sourcesis given. These standard stars are classified in the Vilnius photometricsystem using the methods described. The accuracy of classification isevaluated by a comparison of the astrophysical parameters derived fromthe Vilnius photometric system with those estimated from spectroscopicstudies as well as from photometric data in other systems. For dwarfsand subdwarfs, we find a satisfactory agreement between our reddeningsand those estimated in the uvbyscriptstyle beta system. The standarddeviation of [Fe/H] deter mined in the Vilnius system is about 0.2 dex.The absolute magnitude for dwarfs and subdwarfs is estimated with anaccuracy of scriptstyle <=0.5 mag.

A Moderate-Resolution Spectral Atlas of Carbon Stars: R, J, N, CH, and Barium Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..105..419B&db_key=AST

First radial velocities for 146 bright F- and G-type stars
We have obtained an average of 5.7 radial velocities for 146 northernstars of types F and G (all luminosity classes) listed in 'A Supplementto the Bright Star Catalogue' as having no previously known radialvelocity measures. Those were obtained with charge coupled devices(CCDs) and a cross-correlation technique; the intrinsic velocityaccuracy, based on stars of apparently constant velocity, is probablyless than +/- 0.3 km/s per mean. Of those stars 14% are newly discoveredSB2 stars. The prevelance of rapid profile variations (in minutes orhours) in most of the broad-lined F-type stars makes it difficult toobtain accurate measures for them.

UBV photometry of barium stars
Magnitudes in V and B-V and U-B colors observed by the 91-cm telescopeat Okayama are presented for 109 stars including both classical andmarginal barium stars. The two-color diagram shows a fair amount ofspread. This can be interpreted by interstellar reddening and variableamounts of line blocking effect. Both classical and marginal bariumstars form a fairly homogeneous group.

Lithium in the barium stars
Analysis of high-resolution spectra of classical barium giants revealsthat an unidentified line is a major contributor to thestellar-absorption feature at 6707.8 A attributed previously to a blendof CN lines and the Li I resonance doublet. The strength of theunidentified line is well correlated with the strength of a Ce II line.In contrast to published reports of positive identifications ofabsorption due to the Li I doublet, an acceptable fit of a syntheticspectrum to the observed spectrum of a barium giant is obtainablewithout a significant contribution from the Li I doublet. Upper limitsto the Li abundance of classical barium giants are now consistent withthose expeeted if CH subgiants evolve into barium giants.

Longterm Photometry of Variables at ESO - Part Two - the Second Data Catalogue 1986-1990
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&AS..102...79S&db_key=AST

Taxonomy of barium stars
Spectral classification, barium intensity, radial velocity, luminosity,and kinematical properties are determined for 389 barium stars byanalyzing image-tube spectra and photometric observation data. Diskkinematics for the stars are based on whether they are Ba weak or Bastrong. Weak barium stars in general have smaller velocity dispersions,brighter apparent magnitude, and lower luminosity than strong bariumstars. These characteristics are confirmed by solving for meanspectroscopic distances, z-scale height distances, and reduced propermotions.

Long-term photometry of variables at ESO. I - The first data catalogue (1982-1986)
This paper presents the catalog of photometric data in the Stromgrensystem obtained during the first four years (October 1982 - September1986) of the Long-Term Photometry of Variables (LTPV) program at ESO.The data are available in computer-readable form.

The binary nature of the barium and CH stars. III - Orbital parameters
Results are presented from a 10-year program to monitor the velocityvariations of Ba II and CH stars, showing that all Ba II and CH starsare binaries. Radial-velocity observations for Ba II and CH binaries aregiven. Also, the results of orbit calculations and orbital elementdeterminations are analyzed. It is shown that the eccentricities of BaII star orbits are significantly lower than the eccentricities for asample of normal G and K giants. In addition, the eccentricities of CHstar orbits are significantly lower than those of Ba II stars,suggesting dissipation due to mass exchange, probably from a previousAGB star. The mass functions for Ba II and CH stars indicate that thestars come from samples of binary systems with a small dispersion inmass ratios. If the Ba II and CH stars are assumed to have masses of 1.5and 0.8 solar mass, respectively, then their companions would havemasses near 0.6 solar mass, similar to the values expected for whitedwarfs.

Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars
Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant andsupergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with theEinstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants orsubgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solarmasses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars ofsimilar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-rayluminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large Ggiants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solarvalues. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantlylower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, exceptfor one spectroscopic binary.

Kinematic and spatial distributions of barium stars - Are the barium stars and AM stars related?
The possibility of an evolutionary link between Am stars and bariumstars is considered, and an examination of previous data suggests thatbarium star precursors are main-sequence stars of intermediate mass, aremost likely A and/or F dwarfs, and are intermediate-mass binaries withclose to intermediate orbital separations. The possible role of masstransfer in the later development of Am systems is explored. Masstransfer and loss from systems with a range of masses and orbitalseparations may explain such statistical peculiarities of barium starsas the large dispersion in absolute magnitude, the large range ofelemental abundances from star to star, and the small number of starswith large peculiar velocities.

E. W. Fick Observatory stellar radial velocity measurements. I - 1976-1984
Stellar radial velocity observations made with the large vacuumhigh-dispersion photoelectric radial velocity spectrometer at FickObservatory are reported. This includes nearly 2000 late-type starsobserved during 585 nights. Gradual modifications to this instrumentover its first eight years of operation have reduced the observationalerror for high-quality dip observations to + or - 0.8 km/s.

Binary stars unresolved by speckle interferometry. III
The KPNO's 4-m telescope was used in 1975-1981 to determine the epochsof 1164 speckle observations for 469 unresolved, known or suspectedbinary stars. The data, presented in tabular form, encompass visualbinaries with eccentric orbits, occultation binaries, astrometricbinaries, Hyades stars of known or suspected duplicity, and many longperiod spectroscopic binaries.

Three-dimensional calssification of F-M type halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system
Not Available

A catalog of spectral classification and photometry of barium stars
Many other Ba II stars have been found, since the enhancement of theline of singly ionized barium (4554 A) in late-type, high-luminositystars was discovered by Bidelman and Keenan (1951). The majority ofstars so identified are listed in a study conducted by MacConnell et al.(1972). MacConnell et al. identified 150 'certain' barium stars and anadditional 90 'marginal' barium stars from inspection of objective-prismplates of the Michigan Spectral Survey of the southern sky. Since themajority of known Ba II stars were discovered with objective-prismplates, they have lacked high-quality spectral classifications. It hasbeen attempted to obtain these data along with broad- andintermediate-band photometry, in order to study the properties of thissubgroup of stars in greater detail than has heretofore been possible.Except for the stars recently identified by Bidelman (1981), the list ofspectroscopic and photometric data in Table 1 includes virtually allrecognized barium stars. The stars identified by Bidelman are listed inTable 2.

The binary nature of the barium stars. II - Velocities, binary frequency, and preliminary orbits
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983ApJ...268..264M&db_key=AST

DDO Observations of Southern Stars
Not Available

The binary nature of the barium stars
Radial-velocity spectrometer observations are presented that indicatethat Ba II stars are binary systems. The secondary stars of thesesystems have low masses, consistent with their being degenerate objectswhich have lost mass onto their primaries in a previous stage ofevolution. It is suggested that the Population II equivalents, the CHstars, may also be binary systems. This may be related to the fact thatthey are found only in globular clusters of the lowest centralconcentration.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:23h51m06.80s
Apparent magnitude:6.931
Distance:216.92 parsecs
Proper motion RA:5.5
Proper motion Dec:-0.6
B-T magnitude:8.446
V-T magnitude:7.057

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 223617
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 587-949-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0900-20507649
HIPHIP 117607

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